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Self-organizing networks are radio access networks (RANs). Self-organizing networks are intended for planning, configuration, management, optimization and healing of versatile radio access networks. SON has been characterized in 3GPP Release 8. 

The SON comprises an assortment of capacities that in nature are different. SON functions will increment with each new vendor release. SON can provide a wide range of capacities, incorporating self-configuration, self-optimization, self-healing, and self-protection. These capacities are made conceivable through man-made intelligence, predictive analytics, and pre-optimized software algorithms.

Self-organizing network

Self-configuration implies the SON automatically registers new access point stations made part of the radio access network (RAN). Self-configuration is regularly provided as a feature of the software conveyance with each radio cell by hardware vendors. Self-configuration is a broad concept that includes a few different functions that are covered through specific SON highlights, like automatic software management, self-test, physical cell ID configuration (PCI), and automatic neighbour relations (ANR). 

Self-optimization consequently enhances base stations’ technical parameters for a particular reason. Self-optimization capacities screen and examine execution information and automatically trigger optimization activity on the affected network element when required. Self-optimizing SON capacities make it possible to present new programmed processes that are excessively quick, or potentially too complex to be executed manually. self-optimization incorporates: 

  • Neighbour list optimization: This optimization reconfigures a neighbour list for the reason that the list contains the minimum set of cells fundamental for handover. The neighbour list can be progressively updated dependent on UE  estimation reports. 
  • Coverage and capacity optimization: This feature targets amplifying the framework limit and guaranteeing there is an appropriate overlapping region between adjacent cells. This enhancement ought to work with some impact regardless of whether the estimation reports from UE do exclude their information on their area.
  • Mobility robustness optimization: It aims to remove unnecessary handover and to provide appropriate handover timing; this enhancement consequently adjusts the thresholds related to cell reselection and handover.
  • Mobility load balancing optimization: It gets UEs in the edge of a congested cell used to hand over to the less congested adjacent cells. It is done by adjusting the thresholds connected with cell reselection and handover. 

Self-Healing SON

Self-healing permits the SON to heal itself when base station connectivity is lost. At the point when a few nodes in the network become defective, self-healing mechanisms target diminishing effects from the failure. 

Self-Healing SON was included in the SON guidelines in releases 9 and 10. Self-healing is an assortment of SON techniques that distinguish issues and give solutions to these issues to avoid user impact and to essentially diminish support costs. The two significant regions where the self-healing concept could be applied, Self-diagnosis: making a model to diagnose, learning from past experiences. Self-healing: consequently start the corrective activities to tackle the issue.

There are three distinct Self-healing SON capacities:

(i) cell outage,

(ii) self-recovery of the network element (NE), 

(iii) self-healing of board faults.

Cell Outage: Cell Outage is the most important in SON. This SON function has two fundamental parts, to be specific, cell outage detection (COD) and cell outage compensation (COC). COD utilizes an assortment of data to decide whether a specific cell is not working correctly.

The objective of COC is to decide and set network parameters and in this manner limit the network execution degradation when a cell is in an outage. COD is a significant component to assist with identifying malfunctioning base stations and will be significant for administrators.

Self-protection implies the self-organizing network consequently protects itself from penetration by unapproved users. It is utilized to keep up with network security and information privacy.

Automatic Neighbor Relations (ANR) is utilized to work with smooth signal transitions from a cellphone cell to another as a device travels through a cellular network. ANR works constantly to examine and communicate with neighbouring cells to guarantee handovers are timely, dependable, and effective.

Use cases of SON:

  • SONs inherent mechanization lessens the requirement for expensive manual, human attention for the establishment and network management. 
  • SON is used to further develop network performance,
  • Decreasing generally network downtime,
  • Expanding user experience over private cellular networks,
  • SONs can automatically learn and adjust to arrange changes of the network over time.
  • Decreased installation time and expenses.
  • Further developed client experience.
  • Further developed network execution.
  • SON deployments have empowered versatile administrators to diminish network roll-out times, decrease dropped calls, further develop throughput and reduce congestion. 
  • The challenge faced by portable administrators is to guarantee that versatile administrations are of high quality while reducing capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operational expenditures (OPEX) of complex radio access networks (RAN). SON’s self-configuring capacities are relied upon to dispense with many on-site operations for the basic settings and subsequent updating of network equipment and hence lessen CAPEX. SON’s self-optimizing capacities will lessen the responsibility of the workload for site survey and examination of network executives and thus reduce OPEX. 

SON Architecture

There are three fundamental alternatives regarding the architecture of SON functions in cellular networks. These are centralized, distributed, and hybrid architectures. Different SON functions can be executed by various structures in a similar organization. 

Distributed SON:

In a distributed SON architecture, the SON algorithms are executed in the network nodes and the nodes exchange SON related messages straightforwardly with one another. Capacities are split between the network elements at the edge of the network, regularly the ENodeB components in this kind of SON (D-SON). This suggests a specific level of localization of functionality and is regularly provided by the network equipment vendor manufacturing the radio cell. In the distributed SON, the network can adapt to changes significantly more rapidly. 

Distributed SON

Centralized SON:

In centralized SON (C-SON), permits a more extensive overview of more edge elements and coordination of load across a wide geographic area. Because of the requirement of inter-work with cells provided by various equipment vendors, C-SON frameworks are more commonly provided by outsiders. The primary advantage of this methodology is that the SON algorithms can take data from all sides of the network into consideration. This implies that it is feasible to optimize the parameters of all centralized SON functions. Centralized SON arrangements give the administrator more control over all data and controls that are accessible at the network management level.

Centralized SON

Hybrid SON:

A Hybrid SON arrangement implies that part of the SON algorithm is executed on the network management level and part is executed in the network elements. Hybrid SON is a combination of centralized and distributed SON, joining components of each in a hybrid arrangement. The hybrid SON is utilized to effortlessly coordinate SON functions and can react rapidly to changes at the network element level. 

Hybrid SON

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