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  1. What is N-AMPS Narrowband AMPS? 

Narrowband AMPS utilized a narrower bandwidth. NAMPS gave more calling limits. Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service (N-AMPS) is a simple portable communication framework that was industrially presented by Motorola in 1991. The N-AMPS standard (IS-88) is an advancement of the first AMPS standard. In NAMPS frameworks each existing 30-kilohertz voice channel was parted into three 10-kilohertz channels. The NAMPS system provided 2,496 channels. 

  1. What is NaaS (Network as a Service)?

Network as a Service empowers clients to handily work the network and accomplish the results. NaaS includes the improvement of resource allocations by considering networks and registering assets as a unified whole. It is frequently utilized alongside cloud computing, along with acronyms such as infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS). It additionally gives the capacity to screen and oversee organizing administrations and track utilization and charging.

  1. What is NACC (Network Assisted Cell Change)? 

NACC was acquainted with diminishing the service outage period which is experienced by a versatile server during a packet data session. It empowers better execution for packet information administrations upon inter-cell change for those networks that don’t uphold PS Handover. It lessens the assistance interference time for UEs in dynamic mode upon cell change by giving in the source cell, prior to the cell change, framework data of an objective cell permitting packet access.

  1. What is NACK (negative ACK)? 

NACK is a signal utilized by PCs or different gadgets to demonstrate that information communicated over a network was obtained with errors. NACK messages utilized by Protocols frequently incorporate the capacity to report on the reason the message is being negatively ACKed. The negative-acknowledgement is a signal that is transmitted to cancel a previously received message or to show some kind of error. A NACK message is transmitted over RTCP to the sender of the media. 

  1. What is NADC North American Digital Cellular? 

This TDMA framework was endorsed and a plan on it was begun in 1987 by a group named TR45-3. This name was given after the industry debated between frequency-division multiple access and time-division multiple access. 

  1. What is NAI (network access identifier)? 

The NAI is utilized to recognize a versatile client or terminal, regardless of the user’s current location and how many IP addresses the terminal may have. The “user@realm” is the syntax for NAI. NAIs are regularly found as client identifiers in the RADIUS and Diameter network access protocols. NAI is regularly utilized to recognize the versatile node uniquely, the home address of the mobile node isn’t generally important to give that capacity.

  1. What is the NAL Network Abstract Layer? 

The Network Abstraction Layer (NAL) is a segment of the H.264/AVC and HEVC video coding principles. The NAL is planned to give “network friendliness” to empower straightforward and viable customization of the utilization of VCL for a wide assortment of frameworks. This takes into consideration more prominent framework adaptability as to how applications connect with network resources, while additionally giving expanded strength. It also offers a adaptable and clean interface to the Network Interface Cards (NIC) and their drivers.

  1. What is NAP (Network Access Point)? 

Network Access Point is a point where sections of the Internet’s high-speed backbone are associated. Internet service providers (ISPs) are associated with Network Access Points (NAPs) so that they can transmit packets. NAPs contain high-speed switching facilities for moving traffic starting with one carrier’s lines to another’s.  The NAPs are located in Washington D.C., New Jersey, Chicago, and California. 

  1. What is NAS (Network Access Server)? 

A network access server (NAS) manages remote logins to build up a point-to-point protocol association. A NAS comprises of a correspondences processor that associates asynchronous devices to a LAN or WAN through network and terminal emulation software. It executes both synchronous and asynchronous routing of upheld protocols. NAS additionally keeps up with user sessions, network resource management, load balancing and other network management/optimization processes.

  1. What is NAS (Non-Access Stratum (a functional layer between the core network and the terminal that supports signaling and user data transfer).)? 

NAS layer is utilized to deal with the foundation of communication sessions and for keeping up with constant interchanges with the user equipment as it moves. The layer upholds signalling messages between the CN and UE. The NAS is characterized in contrast to the Access Stratum which is liable for conveying data over the wireless portion of the network. It is a protocol for messages passed between the User Equipment, otherwise called mobiles, and Core Nodes that is gone straightforwardly through the radio network.

  1. What is NAT network address translation? 

Network Address Translation (NAT) is a method in which one or more local IP addresses are converted into at least one Global IP addresses as well as the other way around to give Internet admittance to the local hosts. Before NAT transmit packets between the networks it interfaces, it interprets the private internal network addresses into legal, globally unique addresses. It gives security as the device’s IP address, transmitting and receiving the traffic, will be hidden. It removes address renumbering when a network develops. 

  1. What is NAT-PMP NAT Port Mapping Protocol? 

NAT-PMP was presented in 2005 by Apple. The NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP) is a network convention for building up network address translation (NAT) settings and port sending arrangements automatically without user effort. It gives means for an application to convey the boundaries for communication to peers. NAT-PMP is essential for the Bonjour protocol details. In NAT-PMP, the assistance is given by the default gateway of the network which is the router associating the private network to the outside world. 

  1. What is NAV Network Allocation Vector? 

Network Allocation Vector utilized with wireless network protocols, for example, IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) and IEEE 802.16 (WiMax). The network allocation vector (NAV) is a virtual carrier detecting instrument that forms a significant piece of the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). In IEEE 802.11, the NAV addresses the quantity of microseconds the transmitting STA expects to hold the medium busy. NAV is utilized in DCF, PCF and HCF.

  1. What is NAVSTAR (navigation system for timing and ranging)? 

The navigation system for timing and ranging is depends on a global system of 24 Department of Defense navigation satellites. It was completed in 1993 and intended to give time, position, and speed information for boats, planes, and land-based vehicles, and for some different purposes. They send signals that permit the assurance, to extraordinary precision, of the areas of special receivers. 

  1. What is NB Node B? 

The Node B gives the association between mobile phones (UEs) and the more extensive phone network. Interestingly, with GSM base stations, Node B utilizes WCDMA/TD-SCDMA as the air interface innovation. It provides radio coverage and transmits information between the radio network and the RNCs. Node Bs have least usefulness, and are constrained by an Radio Network Controller. Nonetheless, this is changing with the emergence of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). 

  1. What is NB-IoT (Narrow Band Internet of Things)? 

Narrow Band Internet of Things created by 3GPP for cellular devices and administrations. This innovation created to empower a wide range of new IoT devices and administrations. NB-IoT fundamentally further develops the power utilization of client gadgets, framework limit and range proficiency, particularly in deep coverage. NB-IoT centers explicitly around indoor coverage, minimal expense, long battery life, and high connection density. It utilizes OFDM modulation for downlink communication and SC-FDMA for uplink communications.

  1. What is NBAP Node B Application Part? 

NBAP is used by the RNC (Radio Network Controller) to oversee and design Node Bs. It likewise utilized to establish transport channels on the Iub and Uu interfaces. It is liable for Resource Blocking, Auditing, Measurement Reporting, Cell Synchronization and Information Exchange. The RNC associates to the Circuit Switched Core Network through Media Gateway (MGW) and to the SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) in the Packet Switched Core Network. It is otherwise called a Radio Network Controller. 

  1. What is NBI (narrowband interference)? 

The narrowband interference alludes to the source of the impedance. NBI is portrayed by moderately high interference power levels concentrated at explicit frequencies. The strategy of wavelet packet is utilized in pulse shaping to lessen the impact of NBI on the bit error rate execution. The NBI taken in consideration is the interference from IEEE 802.11a wireless local area network (WLAN) at 5.2GHz band. 

  1. What is NBMA Non-Broadcast Multiple Access? 

A non-broadcast multiple access network (NBMA) is a computer network to which different hosts are joined, yet information is sent just straightforwardly starting with one computer then onto the next single host over a virtual circuit or across a switched fabric. NBMA is mainly utilized on networks that do not have communicated or multicast capabilities. NBMA networks work inverse of broadcast networks. Some common examples of NBMA network technologies are Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), home power line networking, and X.25.

  1. What is NCGI (NR cell global identifier)? 

NR Cell Global Identifier (NCGI) is utilized to recognize NR cells universally and like EUTRA Cell Global Identifier in 4G LTE. The total size of NCI is 36 bits. The NR cell worldwide identifier is generated from the PLMN ID the cell belongs to and the NR Cell Identity (NCI) of the cell.

  1. What is an NCO (numerically controlled oscillator)? 

A numerically-controlled oscillator (NCO) makes synchronous, discrete-time, discrete-valued representation of a waveform. NCOs are utilized in numerous communications frameworks including digital up/down converters utilized in 3G wireless and software radio systems, digital phase-locked loops, and radar systems. NCOs operate by augmentation to an internal accumulator on the rising edge of each input clock signal. The resultant frequency of the NCO is relative to the quantity of cycles it takes for the accumulator to overflow.

  1. What is the NCP Network Control Protocol? 

NCP permitted clients to access and utilize computers and devices at remote locations and to transmit files between computers. NCP gave the middle layer of the protocol stack, and empowered application administrations, for example, email and record move. NCP was supplanted by TCP/IP during the 1980s. Network Control Protocol (NCP) is a bunch of conventions forming a part of Point − to − Point Protocol (PPP).

  1. What is NCSA National Center for Supercomputing? 

The National Center for Supercomputing was founded in 1986 in Urbana, Illinois, US. NCSA utilized to create and deploy national-scale cyberinfrastructure that advances exploration, science and designing situated in the United States. NCSA gives leading-edge computing, information storage, and visualization resources. NCSA is one of the five original centers in the National Science Foundation’s Supercomputer Centers Program. 

  1. What is ND Neighbor Discovery? 

Neighbor Discovery tackles a bunch of issues identified with the collaboration between nodes attached to the similar link. It is utilized with Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in the Internet protocol suite. It is answerable for get-together different data needed for web communication. NDP characterizes five ICMPv6 packet types with the end goal of router solicitation, router advertisement, neighbor solicitation, neighbor advertisement, and network redirects. It works at the link layer of the Internet model. 

  1. What is the NDC National Destination Code? 

National Destination Code is an International City Code of National Significant Number. NDC is a mix of digits recognizing a numbering region inside a nation or group of countries incorporated in one integrated numbering plan or a specific geographic area and/or network/service. National Destination Code (NDC) fields of the area number are those which define the PLMN of which the location is part. National Destination Code optional code field which is controlled by every particular Telephone Numbering Plan.

  1. What is NDIS (network driver interface specification)?     

   The network driver interface specification permits transport conventions like TCP/IP, Native ATM, IPX, and NetBEUI to transmit with an underlying network adapter. The execution of NDIS is an applicative system for creating network device drivers. The NDIS creates the logical link control (LLC) sublayer, which is the upper sublayer of the OSI data link layer. Consequently, the NDIS goes about as the connection between the media access control (MAC) sublayer, which is the lower sublayer of the data link layer, and the network layer.

  1. What is NDP Neighbor Discovery Protocol? 

Neighbor Discovery Protocol utilized with Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6). It works at the link layer of the Internet model, and is answerable for gathering different data needed for web communication, incorporating the configuration of local links. NDP characterizes five ICMPv6 packet types with the end goal of router advertisement, neighbor solicitation, neighbor advertisement, and network redirects. These sorts of processes assist to route information along network trajectories utilizing individual nodes.     

  1. What is NE Network Element? 

Network Element permits disseminated devices to be overseen in a unified manner utilizing one administration framework. This incorporates things, for example, subscriber numbers, databases, signaling frameworks, and data that is adequate for charging and assortment. it’s utilized in the transmission, routing, or other provision of a communications administration.

  1. What is NEM Network Element Manager? 

An element management system (EMS) comprises frameworks and applications for overseeing network elements (NE) on the network element-management layer (NEL) of the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) model. EMS deals with the capacities and abilities inside each NE except doesn’t deal with the traffic between different NEs in the network. The EMS gives the establishment to carry out TMN–layered operations support system (OSS) architectures. 

  1. What is NEMA National Emergency Management Agency? 

The National Emergency Management Agency was set up through the Disaster Management Act authorized by the Government of India. It was set up on 23 December 2005. NDMA is answerable for policies, setting down rules and best-practices for organizing with the State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) to guarantee a comprehensive and conveyed way to deal with disaster management. NEMA is Headquartered in NDMA Bhawan, Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi

  1. What is NEP Network equipment provider? 

Network equipment providers offer products and administrations to communication service providers, for example, fixed or versatile administrators just as to enterprise customers. NEP innovation takes into account calls on mobile phones, Internet surfing, and joining telephone calls. 

  1. What is NETCONF Network Configuration Protocol? 

Network Configuration Protocol created and normalized by the IETF. NETCONF gives components to introduce, control, and erase the configuration of network devices. NETCONF is a generally new administration convention; consequently, it isn’t as broadly accessible across device vendors when contrasted with SNMP. NETCONF should give verification, information integrity and replay protection. NETCONF execution upholds the SSH transport protocol mapping. It’s not as broadly accessible across device vendors when contrasted with SNMP.

  1. What is NF (Noise Figure)? 

Noise figure (NF) is the proportion of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio. The noise factor is characterized as the proportion of the resultant noise power of a device to the portion thereof attributable to thermal noise in the input termination at standard noise temperature. The noise power is equivalent to kTB, where k is Boltzmann’s constant, T is the absolute temperature of the load, and B is the measurement bandwidth.

  1. What is NFAP National Frequency Allocation Plan? 

The National Frequency Assignment Plan (NFAP) serves as a required reason for the organisational units of the federal organization which are answerable for frequency distribution, empowering them to satisfy their undertakings according to recurrence allotment. The NFAP depends on the ITU Radio Regulations. It gives an overview of national use of the recurrence range and separates between civil (CIV), military (MIL) and joint CIV/MIL bands, just as among primary and secondary allocations.

  1. What is NFC Near Field Communication? 

NFC is a bunch of short-range remote advancements. Near-field communication (NFC) is a bunch of communication protocols for transmission between two electronic gadgets over a distance of 4 cm or less. They are utilized in contactless payment frameworks and permit versatile payment replacing framework, for example, credit cards and electronic ticket smart cards. NFC provides a low-speed association. NFC can be utilized for social networking, for sharing files, messages and forums, videos. NFC works at the range of 13.56 MHz from 106 kbit/s to 424 kbit/s. 

  1. What is NFPA (National Fire Protection Association)? 

NFPA was established on November 6, 1896. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is utilized to stop death, injury, property and economic misfortune because of fire, electrical and related risks. NFPA participation totals more than 65,000 people all over the planet.

  1. What is NFV (network functions virtualization)? 

NFV considers the division of communication administrations from devoted equipment, which means network activities can offer new types of assistance dynamically and without installing new hardware like routers. NFV depends upon traditional server-virtualization procedures. Network administrators virtualize their network can set aside cash, updated products, and adjust resources accessible to applications and administrations. 

  1. What is NFVI Network functions virtualization infrastructure? 

Network functions virtualization infrastructure (NFVi) comprises of the infrastructure parts like figure, storage, networking on a platform to assist software, for example, a hypervisor like KVM required to run network apps. Ericsson NFVI empowers administrators to convey virtual network functions (VNFs) from multiple vendors, just as OSS and BSS applications, with speed while keeping total cost of ownership low. This cloud foundation arrangement is open and follows ETSI compositional standards.

  1. What is NFVO network function virtualization orchestrator? 

The NFV orchestrator (NFVO) is a critical part of the network functions virtualization management and network orchestration architectural system, which normalizes the elements of virtual systems administration to expand interoperability of software-defined networking (SDN) elements. The NFVO performs resource orchestration and network service orchestration. The NFVO is a focal part of an NFV-based solution. It unites various capacities to make a solitary orchestration administration that includes the entire structure and has efficient resource use.

  1. What is NG (The interface between the gNB and the 5G CN)? 

A next-generation network (NGN) is a packet-based network which can offer types of assistance including Telecommunication Services. In the NG network, one network moves all data and administrations such as voice, data, and all sorts of media by encapsulating these into IP packets. It upholds unrestricted access by users to different service providers. It upholds versatility which will permit reliable and ubiquitous provision of services to users.

  1. What is NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Networks)? 

The Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Alliance is a versatile media communications association of portable administrators, producers and research institutes. Its aim is to guarantee the fruitful business dispatch of future versatile broadband organizations through a guide for innovation. Next-generation mobile networks (NGMN) include the idea that the next generation of wireless transmission will be able to deliver voice calls, video streams, website visits, data services and more through the same device on a transparent network. 

  1. What is NGPON2 Next Generation PON2? 

NG-PON2 is called Next-Generation Passive Optical Network 2. NGPON2 empowers wireline and wireless networks to leverage existing PON infrastructure to meet the voracious requirement for transfer speed. NG-PON2 sends information through fiber-optic links, offering exceptionally high-limit associations at speeds up to 10 Gbps. NG-PON2 is viable with existing PON fiber by replacing the optical line terminal (OLT) at the office, and the optical network unit (ONU) near each end-user.

  1. What is a NIC Network Interface Card? 

A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware component without which a computer can’t be associated with a network. NIC allows both wired and wireless communications. NIC permits interchanges between computers connected via local area network (LAN) as well as communications over large-scale networks through Internet Protocol (IP). NICs give functionality to computers, like direct memory access (DMA) interfaces, data transmission, network traffic engineering and partitioning. 

  1. What is NID network ID? 

The network ID distinguishes the TCP/IP network on which a host resides. The network ID part of an IP address extraordinarily distinguishes the host’s network on an internetwork. The network ID is found by logically ANDing the binary form of the IP address with the binary form of the subnet mask for the network. 

  1. What is NIDD Non-IP Data Delivery? 

Non-IP Data Delivery (NIDD) provides effective transmission between IoT devices and enterprise applications. This information conveyance strategy can help applications that execute limited quantities of inconsistent information. NIDD is capable of transporting up to 1500 bytes in a single transmission. NIDD permits the versatile and MME to use NAS signaling as a means of transmission of data messages related to IoT. NIDD assists with diminishing administration overhead by taking out the requirement for keeping up with pools of Static IP for devices.    

  1. What are NIDS Network Intrusion Detection Systems? 

Network Intrusion Detection Systems examines network traffic for dubious action and issues cautions when such movement is found. It examines an organization or a framework for destructive action or policy breaching. The most well-known groupings are: First is Network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) that examines incoming network traffic. And second is Host-based intrusion detection systems (HIDS) that screen significant operating system files. An intrusion detection framework goes about as a versatile safeguard technology for system security after traditional technologies fail.

  1. What is NII (National Information Infrastructure)?

National Information Infrastructure used to build transmission networks, interoperable computer hardware and software, databases, and consumer electronics in order to store immense measures of data. NII will be utilized to further develop government and social administrations while reducing managerial expenses. It is utilized to attach transmission networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics to convey data administrations to all U.S. residents. 

  1. What is NIOSH (National institute for Occupational safety and health)? 

NIOSH was established on December 29, 1970 and Headquartered in Washington, D.C. The goal of the NIOSH is to produce new information in the field of occupational safety and health and betterment of workers. To accomplish this mission, NIOSH conducts scientific research, creates direction and legitimate proposals, disperses data, and reacts to demands for work environment wellbeing danger assessments. NIOSH gives national and world leadership to stop illness, injury, disability, and death related to work by gathering data, conducting scientific research, and translating the knowledge gained into products.

  1. What is NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA)? 

The National Institute of Standards and Technology was established on March 3, 1901. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a science laboratory of the Department of Commerce in the United States. Its main goal is to advance American development and industrial competitiveness. NIST’s exercises are coordinated into laboratory programs that incorporate nanoscale science and innovation, designing, data innovation, neutron research, material measurement, and physical measurement. NIST measurements assist the smallest of advancements to the biggest and generally complex of human-made manifestations. 

  1. What is the NL Network Layer? 

Network layer is liable for routing packets from source to destination within or outside a subnet. Network layer is regularly utilized for layer 3 in the OSI reference model which is alluded to as the network layer in OSI model. The network layer gives the association and the association arrangement and detachment between any two nodes, and gives all capacities identified with switching: Reset, disconnect, error detection, and transparent data transport between network endpoints. 

  1. What is NLOS (non-line of sight)? 

Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) is a term frequently utilized in radio transmission to define a radio channel or link when between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna there is no visual line of sight (LOS). In this context LOS is taken Either as a straight line liberated of any form of visual obstruction, regardless of whether it is very far off to see with the unaided human eye. 

  1. What is NLS (nonlinear least squares)? 

Nonlinear Least Squares (NLS) can be utilized for data sets to produce regression models. These regression models contain nonlinear attributes. It is utilized in some types of nonlinear regression. Nonlinear least squares regression increases linear least squares regression for utilization with a much larger and general class of functions. 

  1. What is NM Network Management? 

Network management is the most common way of administering and overseeing computer networks. Administrations given by this discipline incorporate issue analysis, performance management, provisioning of networks and keeping up with the nature of administration. Network management software is utilized by network managers to assist perform these functions.

  1. What is the NML Network Management Layer? 

The Network Management Layer (NML) manages issue and execution information for the network and overall network management and configuration, which incorporates tasks. Network management layer executes functions for distribution of network resources such as configuration, control and supervision of the network. The objective of the Network Management layer is interaction of the network components and the topology of the network. 

  1. What is the NMS network management system? 

A network management system (NMS) is a bunch of applications that allows network administrators to deal with a network’s independent components inside a bigger network management system. A network management system is valuable in: Network device discovery, Network device monitoring and Network performance analysis. It grants clients to screen or deal with their whole business tasks utilizing a central computer.

  1. What is the Node B base station? 

The Node B gives the association between mobile phones (UEs) and the more extensive phone network. Interestingly, with GSM base stations, Node B utilizes WCDMA/TD-SCDMA as the air interface innovation. It provides radio coverage and transmits information between the radio network and the RNCs. Node Bs have least usefulness, and are constrained by a Radio Network Controller. Nonetheless, this is changing with the emergence of High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).

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