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  1. What is L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol)? 

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is a tunneling protocol utilized to assist virtual private networks (VPNs). It utilizes encryption just for its own control messages and does not provide any encryption of content by itself. A User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port is utilized for L2TP correspondence. Since it doesn’t give any security to information like encryption and classification, an encryption convention like Internet Protocol security (IPsec) is regularly utilized with L2TP. 

  1. What is LA (Link Adaptation)? 

Where a network adapts the MCS transmitted (DL), or instructs the device to adapt its MCSs (UL) is known as Link adaptation. LA is a term utilized in wireless communications to signify the coordination of the adjustment, coding and other sign and convention boundaries to the conditions on the radio connection. Link adaptation is a term used in radio communications. Link adaptation is the capacity to adapt the modulation scheme and the coding rate of the error correction as per the nature of the radio link.

  1. What is LAA (License-Assisted Access)? 

License-Assisted Access has conveying velocities of above 1 Gbps. LAA is an LTE highlight that is utilized to assign public range in the fast and currently spacious 5GHz band. It has been intended to support standard call administrations. License-Assisted Access is the second variant of LTE-Unlicensed. Consumers can leverage the combination of licensed and unlicensed bands to accomplish higher peak rates indoor and outdoor. LAA Enables versatile administrators to provide Gigabit Class LTE by utilizing small chunks of authorized range. 

  1. What is LAAS (local area augmentation system)? 

The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) will expand the Global Positioning System to give an all-climate approach, landing, and surface route ability. LAAS will give very high exactness, accessibility, and integrity necessary for Category I, II, and III precision approaches. The advancement endeavors of the LAAS are centered around two principle regions: the LAAS ground equipment and the LAAS avionics. 

  1. What is LAC (Location Area Code)? 

The LAC is a 16-bit number. It structures part of the local Area Identifier (LAI) which incorporates the Mobile Country Code (MCC0 the Mobile Network Code (MNC) and the Local area code. A location area is a bunch of base stations that are assembled to optimize signalling. CellID (CID) — is a for the most part remarkable number used to recognize each Base transceiver station (BTS) or sector of a BTS within a Location area code.

  1. What is LADN (Local Area Data Network)? 

A Local Area Data Network (LADN) is a Data Network. The UE can associate with a LADN session just when the UE is situated in a specific region. LADN acknowledges 5G applications with low inertness and high information rate since an administrator can find the committed User Plane Function close to RAN. LADN is the term utilized in the 5G determinations to allude to a DN (Data Network) that is just available in explicit areas. 

  1. What is LAI (Location area identity)? 

The Location Area Identity (LAI) uniquely recognizes a Location Area (LA) inside a versatile network. Every location area of a Public Land Mobile Network has its own special identifier which is known as its location area identity. It comprises the Mobile Country Code (MCC), the Mobile Network Code (MNC) and the Location Area Code (LAC). The LAI is utilized to monitor the portable supporters in the organization. 

  1. What is LAN (Local area network)?

A local area network is a computer network that interconnects PCs inside a restricted region like a home, school, research facility, college grounds or office building. The simplest Internet-connected LANs need just a router and a way for computing devices to associate with the router, for example, through Ethernet links or a WiFi hotspot. LANs without an Internet association need a switch for conveying information. Enormous LANs, for example, those in a huge place of business, may require extra switches or changes to all the more effectively forward information to the right gadgets. 

  1. What is LB (load balancing)? 

Load balancing is characterized as the deliberate and effective conveyance of network traffic across numerous servers. Each load balancer is located between customer gadgets and backend servers, getting and afterward circulating approaching requests to any accessible server fit for fulfilling them. Like, if a user has three application servers: the first client request to the first application server in the list, the second customer request to the second application server, the third customer request to the third application server, the fourth to the first application server, etc. 

  1. What is LBO (local breakout )? 

A local internet breakout is an access point to the internet situated as near the client as could be expected. Local breakouts empower associations to offload internet-bound traffic from local branches and remote offices, and route it straightforwardly to the internet by means of a nearby local internet service provider (ISP).

  1. What is an LCD (Liquid crystal display)? 

A liquid-crystal display electronically modulated optical device that utilizes the light-modulating features of liquid crystals joined with polarizers. Liquid crystals don’t transmit light straightforwardly, rather utilizing a reflector to generate images in color. Liquid crystal display innovation operates by obstructing light. At the same time, electrical currents cause the liquid crystal molecules to adjust to permit shifting degrees of light to go through to the subsequent substrate and make the colors and images. 

  1. What is LCP (Link Control Protocol)? 

The LCP protocol examines the identity of the linked device and either acknowledges or dismisses the device. It decides the packet size for transmission. LCP searches for errors in configuration. It can end the connection if necessities surpass the boundaries. Link Control Protocol (LCP) is the component of Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) network communication. It is answerable for controlling the PPP links for PPP suite protocols’ activity. It is executed at the Data Link Layer in the OSI mode.

  1. What is LDAP (Lightweight directory access protocol)? 

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) operates on TCP/IP, utilized to access data from directories. It is used to maintain distributed directory information services over an Internet Protocol (IP) network. The normal utilization of LDAP is to give a focal spot to validation, which means it stores usernames and passwords. This permits a wide range of utilizations and administrations to interface with the LDAP server to approve clients. LDAP utilizes a somewhat basic, string-based query to extract data from Active Directory.

  1. What is LAPDm (Link Access Protocol on the Dm channel)? 

Link Access Protocol on the Dm channel is being derived from Link Access Protocol Balanced (LAPB) protocol. LAPDm does not uphold expanded header designs. LAPDm upholds just the SABM, Disk, DM, UI and UA U-Frames. It is utilized in GSM to assist the transport of data between the portable and the network. LAPDm is derived from a much older link layer protocol called HDLC and determined in 3GPP specifications TS 04.05 and TS 04.06.

  1. What is LAU (Location Area Update)? 

The location update system permits a cell phone to illuminate the cell organization, at whatever point it moves starting with one area region then onto the next. A methodology executed by the versatile to supply the MSC with the Location Area in which the mobile currently resides. UE starts LAU procedure when it recognizes another area region while on roaming. This happens in GSM when a mobile device is moved from one location then onto the next.

  1. What is Layer 1 (Layer 1 (Physical Layer))? 

The physical layer is the first and lowest layer in the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. The physical layer characterizes communicating a stream of bits over a physical data link connecting network nodes. The bitstream might be assembled into code words and changed over to a physical signal that is communicated over a transmission medium. The physical layer comprises the electronic circuit transmission technologies of a network. The physical layer performs bit-by-bit or symbol-by-symbol data information to convey a physical transmission medium.

  1. What is Layer 2 (Layer 2 (Medium Access Control Layer))? 

The medium access control (MAC) is a sublayer of the data link layer of the open system interconnections (OSI) reference model. It is answerable for stream control and multiplexing for transmission medium. It manages the transmission of information packets by means of remotely shared channels. It is liable for encapsulating frames with the goal that they are appropriate for transmission through the physical medium. It creates the frame check sequences and thus contributes to protection against transmission errors.

  1. What is Layer 3 (Layer 3 (Network Layer in OSI )?

The network layer is answerable for packet sending incorporating routing through intermediate routers. It additionally deals with packet routing, for example choice of the most limited way to communicate the packet, from the number of routes accessible. The network layer protocols figure out which route is appropriate from source to destination. 

  1. What is LDM (Layer division multiplex)? 

Layered-division-multiplexing (LDM) is used to productively convey various administrations with various robustness and throughputs in one TV channel. It is utilized to give an adaptable multi-layer framework transmission through spectrum overlay. In Layer Division Multiplex (LDM) the signal to be communicated comprises various distinctive free signals superimposed together at various injection levels to form a multi-layer signal. Each layer can have its own attributes. LDM framework is fit for conveying robust high-definition (HD) mobile TV and ultra-HDTV administrations in one 6 MHz channel, with a higher spectrum proficiency. 

  1. What is LDP (Label Distribution Protocol)? 

Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is utilized to distribute labels in non-traffic-engineered applications. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) is a protocol wherein routers capable of Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) exchange label mapping data. LDP is utilized to fabricate and keep up with LSP databases that are utilized to send traffic through MPLS networks. LDP can work in numerous modes to suit various necessities; but the most widely recognized use is unsolicited mode. The fundamental benefit of LDP over RSVP is the simplicity of setting up a full mesh of tunnels utilizing unsolicited mode. 

  1. What is LDPC (low density parity check)? 

LDPC was created by Robert G. Gallager in 1960. It is reasonable for error correction in large block sizes sent by means of noisy channels. It is a strategy for communicating a message over a noisy transmission channel. An LDPC is built utilizing a sparse Tanner graph. LDPC codes are discovering expanding use in applications requiring exceptionally effective data sent over bandwidth-constrained in the presence of corrupting noise. 

  1. What is LEA (Law Enforcement Agencies)? 

Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) implies a Federal, State, investigator, judge, work office, kids’ defensive administrations organization, or other power that has the obligation and authority for the location, examination, and additionally indictment of extreme types of dealing with people. It is an administration organization answerable for the requirement of the laws in America. LEA is engaged in shifting degrees to: gather data about subjects in the LEA’s purview, rudely look for data and proof identified with the resistance with a law and seize proof of non compliance with a law. 

  1. What is LI (Lawful Interception)? 

Lawful Interception permits law enforcement agencies with court orders to specifically wiretap individual subscribers. Lawful Interception (LI) is a security interaction where a specialist co-op or network administrator gathers and furnishes law authorization authorities with caught correspondences of private associations. It is the government’s legally-sanctioned access to private correspondences, for example, phone discussions, email messages, direct and messages. LI capacities should work without being recognized by the individual whose data is being captured.

  1. What is Li-Fi (Light-Fidelity)? 

The term was first presented by Harald HaasLi-Fi. It is a wireless communication innovation which uses light to send information and position between gadgets. Li-Fi is a light correspondence framework that is equipped for communicating information at high speeds over the visible light, ultraviolet, and infrared ranges. Li-Fi can go through It is additionally utilized in workplaces and homes for information transmission and internet browsing. 

  1. What is LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)? 

Lidar sometimes is called 3-D laser scanning. LADAR is a strategy for deciding ranges by focusing an object with a laser and estimating the ideal opportunity for the reflected light to get back to the receiver. A lidar instrument comprises a laser, a scanner, and a specific GPS receiver. There are two sorts of lidar: topographic and bathymetric. Topographic lidar commonly utilizes a near-infrared laser to map the land, while bathymetric lidar utilizes water-penetrating green light to likewise quantify seafloor and riverbed heights.

  1. What is LIPA (local IP access)? 

LIPA permits users who are connected to Femto or Pico cells without traffic entering the service provider’s network to access devices on their local network. LIPA permits IP enabled UE to associate with HeNB to access IP empowered administrations of enterprise frameworks without accessing the user-plane of the core network in which UE is roaming. LIPA can be applied in both roaming and non-roaming. 

  1. What is LLC (logical link control)? 

A logical link control (LLC) information communication protocol layer is the upper sublayer of the data link layer (layer 2) of the seven-layer OSI model. The LLC sublayer works as an interface among the media access control (MAC) sublayer and the network layer. LLC gives hop-to-hop stream and error control. It permits multipoint transmission over a computer network. Frame Sequence Numbers are allocated by LLC. 

  1. What is LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service)? 

Local Multipoint Distribution Service is point-to-multipoint innovation. It is empowering communication to and from a solitary source to several receivers. LMDS was initially intended for digital TV transmission medium. After some time it was a wireless cable solution to give high-speed broadband Internet associations with homes. The LMDS administration ordinarily works over a range of about 1.5 miles. LMDS normally works on microwave frequencies across the 26 GHz and 29 GHz groups. 

  1. What is LMR (Land Mobile Radio)? 

A land mobile radio system (LMRS) is a voice communication framework comprising two-way radio transceivers. This can occur in an assortment of mediums, incorporating handheld, vehicle-mounted, and fixed base. LMR frameworks are likewise usually utilized in the business world in different ventures including modern, transportation, utilities, security, coordinations and surprisingly in the military. LMR frameworks ordinarily comprise handheld versatile radios, vehicle mounted portable radios, fixed base stations and repeaters, and organization foundation. 

  1. What is LNA (low noise amplifier)? 

A low noise amplifier amplifies an exceptionally low-power signal. A low noise amplifier is utilized to enhance signals of extremely low strength, generally from an antenna where signals are barely examined and ought to be intensified without adding any noise. In a low noise amplifier, received signal is processed and changed over into data. An LNA is the principal part of a beneficiary of a receiver to intercept a signal, making it a vital part in the communications process.

  1. What is LO (Local Oscillator)? 

Local oscillators are utilized to change an approaching recurrence over to one more recurrence and in some cases are utilized to change starting with one inside recurrence over then onto the next. Local oscillators are utilized in the superheterodyne receiver, the most well-known kind of radio receiver circuit. They are additionally utilized in numerous different communications circuits like modems, cable television set top boxes, frequency division multiplexing frameworks utilized in phone trunklines, microwave transfer frameworks, telemetry frameworks.

  1. What is LPC (Linear predictive coding)? 

LPC is a broadly utilized strategy in speech coding and speech processing. LPC examines the speech signal by assessing the formants, removing their effects from the speech signal, and assessing the intensity and recurrence of the leftover buzz. It is utilized as a type of voice compression by telephone organizations, for example, in the GSM standard. It is likewise utilized for secure remote, where voice should be digitized, encoded and transmitted over a narrow voice channel.

  1. What is LPWA (Low Power Wide Area)? 

Low Power Wide Area intended to permit long-range transmissions at a low bit rate among things. The LPWAN information rate goes from 0.3 kbit/s to 50 kbit/s per channel. A LPWAN might be utilized to make a private wireless sensor network. LPWANs are ordinarily utilized in smart metering, smart lighting, asset monitoring and tracking, smart cities, agriculture, livestock monitoring, and energy management. LPWANs can accommodate packet sizes from 10 to 1,000 bytes at uplink. It sends packets at speeds up to 200 Kbps. 

  1. What is LSO (Lifecycle Service Orchestration)? 

Lifecycle Service Orchestration gives coordination and management between network frameworks and broadcast communications IT software platforms, for example, the business support system (BSS) and operations support system (OSS). Lifecycle Service Orchestration (LSO) is a structure and engineering for mechanizing the lifecycle of an availability administration from one end to another across different innovation spaces and supplier organizations. It has attributes of administration quality investigation, Perform limit examination and traffic designing and Perform administration quality improvement. 

  1. What is LBS (Location Based Services)? 

Location-based services (LBS) alludes to administrations that depend on the location of a portable client as dictated by the gadget’s topographical location. It utilizes geographic information and data to offer types of assistance or data to clients. Mobile location-based administrations comprises the location-based administrations software, a content provider to provide geographic-explicit data, an end user’s phone, a positioning component, and a portable network to send the information. It is utilized for recuperating taken resources with dynamic RF, Sending a versatile guest’s area during an emergency call, Tracking a NASA lunar lander and Tracking individuals on a portable guide application. 

  1. What is LSRP (Link-State Routing Protocol)? 

Link-State Routing Protocol utilized in packet switching networks. The link-state protocol is executed by switching nodes in the network. Link state protocols are sometimes called shortest path first or distributed database protocols. This is worked around a notable algorithm from graph theory, E. W. Dijkstra’a most brief algorithm. Link-state algorithms are at times portrayed casually as routers that inform the world about its neighbors.

  1. What is LSTM (Long short-term memory)? 

Long short-term memory can process single data points and entire sequences of information. The LSTM unit is made out of a cell, an input gate, an output gate and a forget gate. LSTMs were created to manage the vanishing gradient issue that can be experienced when preparing conventional RNNs. Uses of LSTM incorporates: Robot control, Time series prediction, Speech recognition, Rhythm learning, Music composition, Grammar learning and Handwriting recognition, etc. LSTMs are unequivocally intended to stay away from long-term dependency issues.

  1. What is LTE (long term evolution)?

Long-Term Evolution is a norm for 4G wireless innovation. LTE provides higher peak information transfer rates. It expands the limit and speed utilizing an alternate radio interface along with core network enhancements. LTE was first introduced in 2004 by Japan’s NTT Docomo. The LTE gives downlink peak rates of 300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s and QoS provisions allowing a transfer latency of less than 5 ms in the radio access network. LTE can oversee fast-moving mobiles and supports multicast and broadcast streams. 

  1. What is LTE-A (Long Term Evaluation—Advanced)? 

LTE Advanced empowered the framework to give a lot of higher information rates, and furthermore much better execution. Long Term Evolution-Advanced networks can convey up to 1 GB per second of information. LTE-Advanced networks utilize multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) innovation to convey information faster. It has a max uplink speed of 500M. The Spectrum productivity is three times more than LTE. LTE Advanced is able to interwork with LTE and 3GPP legacy frameworks.

  1. What is LVC (Layered video coding)? 

Different information streams or layers are made when packing the first video transfer with layered coding. All layers can be joined to reproduce the first video stream during decompression. Layered coding is useful when the similar video stream should be accessible in various characteristics. Layered coding permits encoding a single time, because streams with various characteristics can be gotten by discarding layers. 

  1. What is LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling)? 

LVDS was presented in 1994. LVDS works at low power. It can be executed at exceptionally high rates utilizing cheap twisted-pair copper cables. It determines electrical attributes of a differential, serial signaling standard, but it is not a protocol. LVDS outputs are capable of managing the high data rates and keeping noise emission low, hence ensuring the performance of the analog front end. LVDS utilizes differential signals with low voltage swings to send information at high rates. 

  1. What is LISP (Locator Identifier Separation Protocol)? 

Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) gives new semantics for IP addressing, to rearrange routing operations and further develop versatility. The Locator/ID Separation Protocol parts current IP addresses overlapping semantics of identity and  location into  two different  namespaces. The advantages of utilizing LISP are: multihoming, adaptability of the routing system, upgrading the IP routing for both IPv4 and IPv6, high scale VPN support and so forth. LISP is utilized with IPv4 or IPv6, it can likewise be utilized with different sorts of addressing for RLOC or EID addresses. LISP protocol  upholds  IPv4 and IPv6 as address  families,  in spite of the fact that it is sufficiently adaptable to help the other address families, for example, MAC addresses. 

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