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  1. What is F-DPCH (Fractional DPCH)? 

Fractional DPCH is a unique sort of DPCH channel which can communicate power control signals. Fractional DPCH was included in Rel-6 to advance the utilization of downlink channelization codes. F-DPCH is utilized with the goal that various UE’s can share a single DL channelisation code. By utilizing F-DPCH the cell capacity has been improved and simultaneously for the same number of users, the interference has gone down significantly. 

  1. What is F-OFDM (Filtered orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)? 

Filtered orthogonal frequency division multiplexing uses one pair of transmitter and receiver filters over the entire recurrence data transfer capacity. The full-band filtering waveform is intended to use just one channel over the whole OFDM recurrence data transfer capacity. Hence, it is known as filtered OFDM (F-OFDM). Filtered orthogonal frequency division multiplexing can accomplish a few components like assistance for orthogonal transmission and PAPR decrease procedures, enhanced spectral efficiency, convenient integration with multi-antenna transmission strategies same as the OFDM framework, and support for asynchronous transmission. 

  1. What is F1-AP (F1 application protocol)? 

F1AP gives a signaling between gNB-DU and the gNB-CU whose administrations are isolated into non-UE-associated and UE-associated administrations. The F1AP is conveyed over SCTP. The F1AP protocol is characterized in TS 38.473. The non-UE-associated administrations are interconnected to the F1 interface and the UE-associated administrations are interconnected to one UE. 

  1. What is FA (Foreign Agent)? 

The foreign agent can offer a few types of assistance to the portable node during its visit to the foreign network. Foreign agents can likewise give security administrations since they belong to the foreign network as opposed to the MN which is only visiting.

A Foreign Agent is a node in a MIP (Mobile IP) network that empowers roaming IP clients to register on the foreign network. The FA will communicate with the Home Agent to empower IP datagrams to be conveyed between the home IP network and the roaming IP client on the foreign network. A security connection between the home agent (HA) and the foreign agent (FA) is required. FA local routing will not occur if there is no security association configured. 

  1. What is FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel)? 

The Fast Associated Control Channel shows up in place of the traffic channel when extensive signalling is needed among the GSM mobile and the network when the versatile is in call. FACCH is utilized to convey data between GSM Mobile Station(MS) and Base Transceiver Station(BTS) more rapidly. FACCH data messages can without much effort be communicated in 20 ms duration, as utilized by traffic channels(TCH). The FACCH channel sends messages by supplanting speech information with flagging information for brief timeframes. 

  1. What is FACH (Forward Access Channel)? 

FACH conveys control data to UEs in a cell. Makes up the RACH/FACH pair. Forward Access channel conveys information to the UEs that are registered on the framework. There might be more than one FACH per cell as they may convey packet information. A UMTS transport channel that forms the downlink half of a transport channel pair known as the Random Access Channel, Forward Access Channel combination.

  1. What is FANR (Fast Ack/Nack Reporting)? 

FANR term is utilized in Evolved EDGE to portray the technique for lessening latency by piggybacking Ack and Nack messages with the information blocks. The Fast Ack/Nack reporting is part of the Reduced Latency (RL) methodology, alludes to the likelihood to incorporate, in a radio block for information  sent in one direction, piggy-backed Ack/Nack data comparable to the information transfer. The FANR is appropriate in both uplink and downlink in Active Cell (EGPRS) working mode.

  1. What is FAP (Femtocell Access Point)? 

NEC’s Femtocell access point empowers end users to install the Femtocell access point (FAP) in their homes rapidly and without any problem. Then FAP consequently sets up associations with the core network over the subscriber’s broadband association and it interworks with 3G handsets with no alteration. NEC’s FAP likewise includes a versatile radio administration work getting optimal local coverage with minimal macro network interference. 

  1. What is FAR (False Alarm Rate)? 

FAR is the quantity of false alarms per the complete number of alerts in a given report or circumstance. The false alarm ratio is frequently mistaken with the false alarm rate, which shares the same abbreviation (FAR). The false alarm ratio is significant in climate determination, as forecasters look for the harmony between over revealing conceivable risk versus the risk of not making the caution when real catastrophic danger will occur. 

  1. What is FAR (Forwarding Action Rule)? 

The FAR is a standard inside either a Control and User Plane Separation of EPC Nodes or 5G Core network situation which can be introduced to a user plane component by a control plane component. Specifically, the FAR will give data on how a specific packet ought to be managed.

  1. What is FBC (Flow-Based Charging)? 

Flow Based Charging, implies that with various charging rates, charging each assistance information stream. The capacity to create billing records dependent on a particular flow of information, like a voip call. Flow-based Charging concept is acknowledged by three useful components: the Charging Rules Function (CRF), the Application Function (AF), and the already named Traffic Plane Function (TPF). 

  1. What is FBE (Frame-based equipment)? 

In FBE, the transmitters can be focused to assist information with various prerequisites and have lower energy utilization. There are two plans to further develop the URLLC execution in FBE: The first scheme permits the transmitters to utilize various fixed frame period (FFP) configurations and the second scheme configures the FFP’s starting point of each transmitter depending on its need. In FBE, if a transmitter has a packet to send, it can only detect the channel and begin a transmission at the fixed time. The performance of the FBE channel access mechanism is dissected to see its effect on URLLC activity in unlicensed spectrum.  

  1. What is FBMC (Filter Bank Multicarrier)? 

Filter Bank Multicarrier, FBMC is a type of multicarrier modulation in which the carriers are filtered to give a proficient type of waveform.

FBMC basic principle, dividing recurrence range into many narrow subchannels. It is an advancement of OFDM and intends to defeat a portion of the issues, although this comes at the cost of expanded signal processing. FBMC is able to offer higher information rates within a given radio spectrum bandwidth. 

  1. What is FBR (Front‐to‐Back Ratio)? 

Front‐to‐Back Ratio is the ratio of signal strength communicated in a forward way to that sent in a backward way. This proportion reveals the degree of backward radiation and it is normally expressed in dB. This parameter is significant in conditions where interference or coverage in the reverse direction is required to be limited. 

  1. What is FBSS (Fast Base Station Switching)? 

Fast base station switching is an significant handover mechanism in IEEE 802.16e whose Orthogonal frequency division multiple access mode has been taken on as the portable WiMax. FBSS with reuse partitioning cell structure is proposed to enhance the execution of the FBSS. FBSS maintain a good balance between complexity and handover performance. 

  1. What is FBW (fractional bandwidth)? 

The fractional bandwidth of an antenna is an examination of how wideband the antenna is. The fractional bandwidth fluctuates somewhere in the range of 0 and 2. This is simply the absolute bandwidth isolated by the center frequency of the antenna. 

FBW = BW / fc

The FBW is a more significant expression of the valuable recurrence range of an array and an essential indicator of expected imaging execution. 

  1. What is FC‐OFDM (Flexibly Configured – OFDM)? 

It empowers an adaptable subband arrangement and focuses on a multi-administration situation, which is imagined for future 5G organizations. The proposed FC-OFDM conspire gives a decent trade off between the channel bank multicarrier with offset quadrature abundancy regulation and the old style cyclic prefix-based OFDM framework.  

  1. What is FCAPS (Fault, Configuration, Account, Performance and Security Management)? 

FCAPS is a network management framework made by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Fault management to find them early before they cause significant issues. Configuration management assists network administrators to track and oversee arrangements and related upkeep in a centralized manner. The accounting management level or the allocation level is devoted to distributing resources optimally and fairly among network subscribers. The performance management level helps better manage the overall performance of the network. Security management focuses on restricting and controlling admittance to digital resources situated inside the network. 

  1. What is FCC (Federal Communications Commission)? 

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an autonomous agency of the United States government that directs communications by radio, TV, satellite, and cable. It supplants the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934. The FCC additionally gives varied levels of cooperation, oversight, and leadership for comparable communications bodies in different nations of North America.  

  1. What is FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel)? 

The Frequency Correction Channel is a transmission channel utilized by GSM base stations. It gives a remarkable tone of 67.7 kHz for the Mobile Stations. It is a downlink channel and carries a continuous wave signal which assists mobile find the recurrence offset between BTS and MS. FCCH is mostly given in the GSM frame for synchronization purposes among BTS and GSM Mobile.

  1. What is FCFS (First Come First Served)? 

First Come First Serve (FCFS) automatically executes queued requests and consequently executes in order of their appearance. It is the straightforward and least difficult CPU scheduling algorithm. In this, measures which request the CPU initially get the CPU allocation first. This is controlled with a FIFO queue. As the process enters the ready queue, its Process Control Block is connected with the queue and, when the CPU becomes free, it should be appointed to the process at the start of the queue.

  1. What is FCH (Frame Control Header)? 

A frame control header (FCH) is only connected with demodulating downlink information bursts. It is not connected with uplink information bursts. The VSA utilizes data inside the frame control header to decide the Data Subcarrier Modulation Format. On the off chance that the FCH symbol is absent, the information subcarrier modulation design is automatically recognized instead. The FCH data is utilized only for the first information burst, for subsequent bursts the information subcarrier modulation format is recognized.

  1. What is Furnish Charging Information (FCI)? 

The Furnish Charging Information (FCI) message gives an approach to administrators to transfer network and switch specific charging data among the SRF and the SSF. This methodology might be related with CAMEL interaction for both GSM and GPRS billing functions. At the point when utilized instructs the MSC or SGSN to append 40 Octets or 160 Octets of free format data collated during the Call or GPRS session to the CDR. 

  1. What is FCL (Fully connected layer)? 

A fully connected layer (FCL) is one of the simplest forms of neural networks, generally utilized to arrange inputs. It comprises one input layer, one output layer, and one FCL in the middle. This layer is described by having an association to all of the nodes in the previous and consequent layer. 

  1. What is FCS (frame check sequence)? 

A frame check sequence (FCS) is an error-detecting code. This  is added to a frame in a communication protocol. Frames are utilized to transfer payload information from a source to a destination. FCS algorithm is a cyclic redundancy check (CRC), utilized in Ethernet and other IEEE 802 protocols with 32 bits, in X.25 in HDLC, in Frame Relay, in Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) with 16 or 32 bits, and in different data link layer protocols.

  1. What is FD (Full duplex)? 

Full duplex depicts two information ways that permit concurrent information transmission in the two ways. Full duplex (FD) is a communication procedure where every unit sends and gets simultaneously. The single-bus system is restricted in full duplex. FD capability has already been adopted in digital subscriber line (DSL) systems/standards in the form of echo cancellation before the research on wireless FD systems started.  

  1. What is FD (Frequency domain)?

The frequency domain alludes to the examination of signals with respect to frequency, instead of time. frequency-domain graph shows how much of the signal lies within each given frequency band over a range of frequencies. A frequency-domain can likewise incorporate data on the phase shift that must be applied to each sinusoid in order to be able to recombine the frequency elements to recover the original time signal.

  1. What is FD-MIMO (Full-dimension multiple input–multiple output)? 

Full Dimensional Multiple Input Multiple Output (FD MIMO) alludes to an innovation that arranges the signals sent to antennas in the virtual beams form that can control numerous beneficiaries in three measurements. This decreases interference from overlapping transmissions to different receivers and enhances the power of the signal. FD-MIMO is relied upon to altogether build range proficiency and is included in the 3GPP LTE and LTE-advanced (LTE-A) specifications, and is additionally assessed for 5G.

  1. What is FDD (Frequency Division Duplex)?

Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) is a method where the transmitter and receiver work at various carrier frequencies. The FDD technique is utilized in 2G/UMTS/WCDMA/LTE FDD mode inside wireless networks where it powers voice and data administrations, and in fixed networks, it is utilized in asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) for data administrations. Frequency division duplexing (FDD) utilizes a couple of frequencies for uplink and downlink transmission independently.

  1. What is FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)? 

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a norm for information transmission in a local area network. It is accessible in huge LANs that can reach out as much as 200 kilometers in diameter. FDDI utilizes optical fiber as its physical medium. It works in the physical and medium access control (MAC layer) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model. It gives a high data rate of 100 Mbps and can uphold a large number of clients. 

  1. What is FDE (Frequency Domain Equalization)? 

Frequency domain equalizers (FEQs) have been applied widely in multicarrier frameworks. It is used to improve transmission rate by decreasing transmit redundancy. The proposed equalization algorithm can eliminate intersymbol and intercarrier interference (ISI and ICI) brought about by the decrease or the shortfall of this redundancy by appropriately exploiting null subcarriers that are inherent in standardized multicarrier frameworks. 

  1. What is FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing )? 

The frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a method by which the total bandwidth accessible in a communication medium is partitioned into a progression of non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is utilized to convey a different signal. This permits a solitary transmission medium for example optical fiber to be shared by different autonomous signals. The example of frequency-division multiplexing is radio and television broadcasting, in which numerous radio signals at various frequencies go through the air simultaneously. 

  1. What is FDM (fused deposition modelling)? 

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive fabricating technology. It is a 3D printing process. It utilizes a consistent filament of a thermoplastic material. It has been used in the vehicle business, ranging from testing models, lightweight apparatuses to final functional elements. It is regularly utilized for modeling, prototyping, and production applications. 

  1. What is FDMA (Frequency-Division Multiple Access)?  

FDMA is utilized in multiple-access protocols. Frequency division multiple access is the division of the recurrence band assigned for wireless cellular telephone communication into 30 channels, every one of which can convey a voice conversation, with digital service, and convey digital information. FDMA permits various clients to send information through a solitary correspondence channel by isolating the data transmission of the channel into independent non-overlapping frequency sub-channels and designating each sub-channel to a different client.

  1. What is FDPCH (Fractional DPCH)? 

 F-DPCH (Fractional Dedicated Physical CHannel) is an uncommon kind of DPCH channel. It can communicate only with power control signals. F-DPCH was first characterized in 3GPP rel6 and afterward further upgraded in rel7 to overcome some delicate handover impediments. SF 256 is utilized for A-DPCH thus every code being utilized by a client is truly exhausting the codes accessible for other UE’s. To defeat this F-DPCH is utilized so numerous UE’s can share a solitary DL channelisation code. 

  1. What is FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain)? 

FDTD is a numerical examination method utilized for modeling computational electrodynamics. FDTD addresses Maxwell’s equations directly without any actual estimation, and the most extreme issue size is restricted simply by the extent of the computing power accessible. FDTD can simulate any structure where Maxwell’s equations describe the important physics. Some applications for FDTD techniques incorporate LEDs, solar cells, filters, optical switches, semiconductor-based photonic devices, sensors,  and nonlinear devices. 

  1. What is FDV (Frame Delay Variation)? 

FDV is utilized for observing execution in Ethernet networks. Frame Delay Variation (FDV) is the supreme value of the difference between the Forwarding Delay of two consecutive received packets having a place with a similar stream. The Inter Frame Gap (IFG) histogram technique is a well-known strategy for estimating FDV. 

  1. What is FEC (Forward error correction)? 

Forward error correction (FEC) is a technique for getting error control in information transmission in which the source conveys repetitive information and the destination (receiver) perceives just the part of the information that contains no obvious mistakes. FEC saves bandwidth needed for retransmission. Thus, it is utilized progressively. The utilization of forward error correction (FEC) further develops throughput on noisy channels because it decreases the quantity of bad packets that have to be retransmitted.

  1. What is FeICIC (Further enhanced intercell interference coordination)?        

FeICIC has been presented in Release-11. FeICIC relies upon the advanced receivers’ improvement. FeICIC’s feature that permits a superior probability of reception is the Transmission Mode 9. With FeICIC the cell expansion is spread even further by expanding the biasing level from roughly 6dB to more than 9dB. Increase in bias, further expands small cell’s CRE therefore HetNet proficiency is improved. FeICIC is basically executed at the UE side. 

  1. What is FEM (Finite Element Method)? 

The finite element method (FEM) is a widely generally utilized strategy for mathematically solving differential equations emerging in engineering and mathematical modeling. The limited component technique began with significant guarantees in the demonstrating of several mechanical applications related to aviation and structural designing. Finite Element Method advantages is that it offers incredible opportunity in the choice of discretization, both in the components that might be utilized to discretize space and the premise capacities. 

  1. What is a FET (Field-Effect Transistor)? 

The field-effect transistor (FET) utilizes an electric field to control the progression of current in a semiconductor. FETs have three terminals: source, gate, and drain. FETs control the progression of current by the use of a voltage to the gate, which adjusts the conductivity between the drain and source. Field effect transistors for the most part show exceptionally high input impedance at low frequencies. The most generally utilized field-effect transistor is the MOSFET.

  1. What is FF (Form factor)? 

Form factor is the proportion of the root mean square value to the average value of an alternating quantity called Form Factor. It distinguishes the proportion of the direct current of equivalent power comparative to the given alternating current.

  1. What is FFO (Fractional Frequency Offset)? 

Fractional Frequency Offset is also called Fractional Frequency Deviation. It is an examination of the accuracy of a frequency. FFO is ordinarily determined by the adjustment in the phase error of a clock over a period of time. The gradient of the slope demonstrates the frequency offset when frequency offset appears as a sloping line on a TIE plot.  

  1. What is FFR (Fractional Frequency Reuse)? 

Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) permits the utilization of various frequency reuse factors over various frequency partitions in certain time intervals in downlink and uplink transmissions. It is an interference mitigation method. Fractional frequency reuse (FFR) is an interference coordination technique appropriate to OFDMA based wireless networks. In this technique, cells are partitioned into spatial areas with various recurrence reuse factors. 

  1. What is FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)? 

A fast Fourier transform (FFT) processes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence. Fourier analysis changes over a signal from its original domain to a representation in the frequency domain. Fast Fourier transforms are generally utilized for applications in designing, music, science, and mathematics. The “Fast Fourier Transform” (FFT) is a significant estimation technique in the science of audio and acoustics estimation.

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