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  1. What is CRI (CSI-RS resource indicator)? 

CRI is utilized by LTE-Advanced and 5G devices to show the favored beam, such as FD-MIMO and Massive MIMO. CSI-RS used for tracking, L1-RSRP computation and for mobility.

  1. What is CriC (Critical communications)? 

Critical Communications is a vital segment of 3GPP 5G Services and Markets Technology Enablers. The study began in 2015 and looked at potential 5G necessities, which brought about in excess of 70 diverse utilization cases, assembled into Critical Communications, Massive Internet of Things, Enhanced Mobile Broadband, and Network Operation.

  1. What is CRL (certificate revocation list)? 

A Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is a list of digital certificates. CRL has been repudiated by the issuing Certificate Authority (CA) before their booked termination date. CRLs are a kind of blacklist and are utilized by different endpoints, incorporating Web browsers, to confirm that the certificate is substantial and reliable. 

Each entry in a Certificate Revocation List incorporates the serial number of the denied certificate and the revocation date. The CRL record is signed by the Certificate Authority to prevent tampering.

  1. What is CRLB (Cramér-Rao Lower Bound)? 

The Cramér–Rao bound (CRB) indicates a lower bound on the change of unbiased assessors of a deterministic boundary, expressing that the difference of any such assessor is basically pretty much as high as the converse of the Fisher data. An unbiased assessor that accomplishes the lower bound is supposed to be fully productive. The Cramér–Rao bound can likewise be utilized to bound the difference of biased assessors of given bias.

  1. What is CRM (Cognitive radio management)? 

A cognitive radio (CR) is a radio that can be modified and arranged dynamically to utilize the better wireless channels in its area to keep away from user interference and congestion. The radio automatically distinguishes accessible channels in the wireless spectrum, then accordingly changes its transmission or reception boundaries to permit more simultaneous wireless communications in a given range band at one area. 

  1. What is CRNC (Controlling RNC)? 

The Controlling Radio Network Controller is the Radio Network Controller liable for the setup of a Node B. A User Equipment getting to the framework will transmit admittance to a Node B, which in turn will forward this message onto its CRNC.

It is in the UMTS radio access network (UTRAN) and is liable for controlling the Node Bs that are connected to it. The RNC carries out radio resource management, a portion of the executives’ versatility, and is where encryption is done before client information is shipped off and from the portable. 

  1. What is CRNTI (Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier)? 

The Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier is utilized on common transport channels for enhancement purposes. The choice to utilize the C-RNTI is made by the Controlling Radio Network Controller.

C-RNTI allocation strategy is applied to a first base station; the first base station can offer support to user equipment (UE) along with a second base station by means of a double-connection design and designate a C-RNTI to the UE as indicated by the similar C-RNTI set.

  1. What is CRPF (Cost-reference particle filter)?

Cost-reference particle filtering (CRPF) is an approach for recursive assessment of unnoticed conditions of dynamic frameworks utilizing a stream of particles and their associated costs.

 It is utilized for tracking nonlinear states when probabilistic presumptions about the state and perceived noises are not made. CRPF strategies to get proficient and computationally less demanding algorithms.  

  1. What is CRRM (Common radio resource management)?

Common radio resource management strategies are intended to proficiently distribute traffic between the accessible radio access technologies while giving satisfactory nature of service levels under heterogeneous traffic situations. This proficiency relies on how to develop its functionalities. There exist a  range of opportunities for the arrangement of functionalities that a CRRM  entity might undertake,  which predominantly rely upon the two factors: CRRM  element is used to make radio resource management decisions and the level of interactions between  RRM  and  CRRM entities. 

  1. What is a CPU (Central processing unit)? 

The computer’s central processing unit (CPU) is the segment of a computer that recovers and executes instructions in the computer. A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic hardware that implements guidelines containing a computer program. The CPU executes arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) tasks indicated by the directions in the program. Segments of a CPU incorporate the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that executes arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU tasks, and a control unit that executes instructions by directing the coordinated tasks of the ALU, registers and different segments.

  1. What is CRS (Cell-specific reference signal)?

Cell-specific reference signals (CRS) are transmitted by adjoining cells across the whole frequency band. CRS interference becomes the restricting factor in accomplishing higher downlink throughput, without PDSCH from adjoining cells. In this manner, interference cancellation from CRS becomes a significant signal processing problem in LTE/LTE A frameworks. CRS interference is removed by utilizing channel gauges relating to adjoining cells, in conventional receivers, which are obtained from the received signal.

  1. What is CRS (Cognitive radio systems)?

CRS method is used by any arrangement of a radiocommunication service in a given frequency band will work as per the arrangements of the Radio Regulations governing the utilization of that band. It permits the framework to get information of its functional and geographical climate, set up policies and its internal state; to progressively change its operational boundaries and protocols as indicated by its acquired information. A cognitive radio system (CRS) is a disruptive innovation focusing on exceptionally high spectral efficiency. 

  1. What is CRS (Common reference signal)?

The common reference signal is utilized to decode data transmission. CRS transmission is utilizing a comparable arrangement of beams, comparable time, and comparable CRS antenna port. CRS is utilized in the downlink, CRS is sent by the eNB on exceptional REs for each antenna port, sparsely dispensed in frequency and time. In conventional receivers, CRS interference is canceled by using channel estimates corresponding to neighboring cells, which are obtained from the received signal.

  1. What is CRV (Constellation Rearrangement Version)?

The function of adaptive modulation generally experiences the power shortcomings of multi-level modulation designs. This is because of the variations in bit reliabilities brought about by the bit mapping onto the signal constellation. A Constellation Rearrangement (CoRe) method is utilized to defeat this problem. In which the signal constellation of QAM signals between re-transmissions is rearranged. The constellation rearrangement exclusively is utilized for 16 QAM and 64 QAM modulation methods. Constellation rearrangement version 0 is of lesser quality in the constellation rearrangement version 1, while the two bits of lower quality in constellation rearrangement version 0 are of greater quality constellation rearrangement version 1.

  1. What is CRZ (Contamination Reduction zone)?

The Contamination Reduction zone is the area of transition between the clean area and the contamination area. 

  1. What is CS (Circuit Switched (or Cyclic Shift))?

Circuit switching is utilized to fabricate a communications network in which two network nodes set up a devoted communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may convey. It is utilized for normal telephone calls. It permits communications equipment and circuits to be divided between clients. 

At the point when a call is set up from one phone to another, switches inside the telephone exchanges make a wire circuit between the two phones, for as long as the call lasts. The bit delay is steady during an association in circuit switching.

  1. What is CS (Convergence Sublayer)? 

CS is the upper sublayer of the MAC Layer in WiMAX/802.16. The CS acknowledges higher-layer PDUs from the higher layers. CS communicates them to the MAC CPS where classical type MAC methodology is applied. A function of the CS is Payload Header Suppression, the way toward suppressing repetitive segments of payload headers at the sender and reestablishing these headers at the receiver.

  1. What is CS (Coding Scheme)?

The coding scheme tells the user’s machine which character addresses which set of bytes. Determining the coding scheme utilized is vital as, without it, the machine could decipher the given bytes as a distinct character than intended. Some types of coding schemes are ASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange), UTF-32 (Unicode Transformation Format 32-bit), UTF-16(Unicode Transformation Format 16-bit), UTF-8(Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit), and ISCII(Indian Script Code for Information Interchange).  

  1. What is CS (Compressed sensing)?

Compressed sensing is the signal processing method. It is used to re-establish a signal, by finding solutions to undetermined signals. Compressive sensing possesses various advantages, like the much smaller requirement for sensory devices, less memory storage, higher data transmission rate, and lower power consumption. Because of all these advantages, compressive sensing has been utilized in a wide range of applications. 

  1. What is CS (Coordinated Scheduling)?

 CS decreases inter-cell interference by assigning diverse frequency resources to cell-edge UEs. CS CoMP is a further developed innovation that needs a limited activity period, more complicated signal processing, and more elaborate algorithm, contrasted with ICICI. In ICIC, cooperating cells share impedance data of every cell, except in CS CoMP they can share channel data of every client. 

  1. What is CS-MGW (Circuit-switched media gateway)?

The CS-MGW is liable for bearer control. Its capacities incorporate Bearer control, Bearer channel termination, Media conversion and payload processing, and  Mobile-specific functions. The prerequisites for the bearer control are set in the (G)MSC-Server. The CS-MGW gets this data. The CS-MGW decides whether it can make bearers accessible in accordance with the QoS parameters set. In Media conversion and payload processing,

If the CS-MGW is interfacing with UTRAN, voice data should be handled. The UMTS-specific voice codec is found in the MGW. A CS-MGW should also assist mobility-specific attributes, like handover procedures.

  1. What is CS-RNTI (Configured scheduling RNTI)?

CS-RNTI identifier is utilized in 5G as a component of Configured Scheduling resource assignment. It empowers RRC to characterize the periodicity of the CS grant utilizing the CS-RNTI. CS-RNTI is a one-of-a-kind UE identification utilized for Semi-Persistent Scheduling (SPS) in the downlink and arranged grant in the uplink. Activation and deactivation of SPS are done through PDCCH addressed to CS-RNT in the downlink. In the uplink, in ConfiguredGrantType1, CS-RNTI is only utilized for re-transmissions as the activation and deactivation are finished by the RRC. For ConfiguredGrantType2, CS-RNTI is utilized for activation, deactivation, and re-transmission. CS-RNTI has a length of 16-bit and range is from 1 to 65519 (0x0001 to 0xFFEF).

  1. What are CS‐1, CS‐2 (Coding Schemes)?

CS-1 is the GPRS coding scheme utilized in situations when impedance levels are high or signal levels are low. It is used for error recognition and amendment. It stops the information from having to be re-sent again and again by applying high levels of recognition and amendment. This level of detection and coding brings about a half code rate.

CS-2 error detection and GPRS coding schemes are for better channels. It utilizes a 2/3 encoder and results in a further developed information rate over CS-1.

  1. What is CSA (Cloud Security Alliance)?  

Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) is an association with the aim of “promote the utilization of best practices for giving security affirmation within cloud computing and to give instruction on the utilization of cloud computing to assist secure all other types of computing. The CSA has more than 80,000 individual members around the world. 

The association’s activities, information, and extensive network benefit the entire cloud community, incorporating cloud service suppliers, clients, entrepreneurs, and governments. The CSA provides a forum through which all gatherings can cooperate to make and keep a confided in a cloud environment.

  1. What is CSA (Coded Slotted ALOHA)?

The Coded Slotted Aloha (CSA) accomplishes a remarkable performance by code diversity and impedance cancellation. The CSA execution has been assessed accepting the conventional erasure channel. The coded slotted ALOHA (CSA) is a random access method utilizing the SIC. The CSA encodes packets utilizing a neighborhood code preceding transmission. CSA accomplishes superb throughput. And In the coding theory time shift develops the decoding execution for packet-oriented erasure correcting codes. The time shift to the CSA in order to accomplish better throughput.

  1. What is CSA (Concurrent Spectrum Access)?

Concurrent spectrum access (CSA) permits diverse communication frameworks to send on a similar frequency band, and has been perceived as the main strategy to acknowledge dynamic spectrum management. CSA has the value of minimal cost and simple execution in practice. 

The CSA permits one or different secondary users (SUs) to transmit on the primary spectrum, given that the impedance to the primary users (PUs) can be directed. CSA can accomplish higher region spectral efficiency because of its spatial reuse of spectrum and can be utilized to accommodate the dense wireless traffic in host-spot regions

  1. What is CSCF (Call Session Control Function)?

Call Session Control Function (CSCF) is the main part of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), dealing with all signaling from the end-user to administrations and different networks. CSCF can manage the versatile and fixed IMSs, containing the modules to control end-user signaling, set up emergency associations, oversee communication with different networks, and designating the application server. CSCF can be deployed in multiple cloud environments.

  1. What is CSD (Circuit-Switched Data)?

Circuit-Switched Data is the type of information transmission advancement for time division multiple access based versatile. CSD uses a solitary radio time slot to convey 9.6 kbit/s information transmission to the GSM network switching subsystem where it could be associated through the normal modem to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), permitting direct calls to another dial-up assistance. CSD gives direct access to the underlying digital signal, permitting for higher speeds in TDMA-based systems digital transmission.

  1. What is CSD (Cyclic Shift Delay)?

Cyclic shift diversity (CSD) is a technique of transmitter diversity. CSD is utilized and a cyclic delay is applied to the transmitted signals. The delays are determined to limit the connection between the numerous signals. A conventional legacy framework would treat the various received signals as multipath renditions of a similar signal. The cyclic delay is picked to be within the constraints of the guard interval (GI) so that it does not cause extreme intersymbol interference (ISI).

  1. What is CsDMA (Code-shift division multiple access)?

Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is utilized by different radio communication technologies. In CDMA, where few transmitters can transmit data at the same time over a solitary communication channel. This permits a few clients to share a band of frequencies. It tends to be likewise utilized as a channel or medium access method. CDMA is regularly utilized with BPSK in its easiest shape but can be joined with any modulation scheme, which makes it extremely powerful and efficient.

  1. What is CSFB (circuit-switched fallback)?

 Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB), conveys voice and SMS services to LTE devices with the assistance of a global system for mobile communication or another circuit-switched network. The requirement for a Circuit Switch FallBack for the packet-based all-IP network, LTE, which cannot uphold circuit-switched calls. The device “falls back” to a more accessible 3G or 2G network to complete the call or to transmit the SMS message when an LTE network is not available to make or get a call or SMS message. 

  1. What is CSG (Closed Subscriber Group)?

A closed subscriber group (CSG) is a restricted set of clients with connectivity admittance to a femtocell. Subscribers included in the femtocell’s access control list are allowed to use the femtocell resources when a femtocell is designed in CSG mode. CSG is a bunch of UEs, Subscribers that are permitted for a specific cell. The cell with CSG Indication set to be ‘TRUE’ is called ‘CSG Cell’.

  1. What is CSI (Channel-State Information)?

Channel state information (CSI) alludes to information that depicts how a signal propagates from the transmitter to the receiver and addresses the joined effect of dispersing, fading, and power decay with distance, etc. The transmitter and receiver can have distinctive CSI. The CSI at the transmitter and the CSI at the receiver are sometimes alluded to as Channel-State Information Transmitter and Channel-State Information Receiver.

  1. What is CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)?

Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a media access control (MAC) technique utilized in the early Ethernet methods for local area networking. It utilizes carrier-sensing to concede transmissions until no different stations are transmitting. CSMA/CD is utilized to further develop CSMA execution by ending transmission when a crash is distinguished, subsequently shortening the time needed before a retry can endeavor.

  1. What is CSP (Cloud Service Providers)?

A cloud service provider provides some part of cloud computing; normally when users search the web a cloud service is characterized as, infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) to different organizations. Cloud service suppliers utilize their own server centers and compute assets to host cloud computing-based infrastructure and platform administrations for customer organizations. For CSP, assets, and services bought from a cloud service provider can be accessed from any actual location that has a functioning network connection. Cloud services provide speedy and dependable disaster recovery.        

  1. What is a CSP (Communication Service Provider)?

A communications service provider (CSP) provides broadcast services and data and media administrations, content and application administrations over networks, utilizing the network infrastructure, functional platform. CSPs incorporate classifications: telecommunications carrier, satellite broadcasting administrator, content, and application service provider (CASP), cable service provider, and cloud communications service provider.   

  1.  What is CSR ( Call Success Rate)?

CSR is the level of calls that follow an ordinary delivery. CSR indicator is utilized to gauge the level of calls successfully set up without facing blockage in the network as a proportion of the absolute number of call endeavors made to access and set up a voice call and afterward effectively ended from the user-end without being disconnected from the network side due to a technical abnormality. 

  1. What is CSK (Color Shift Keying)?

Color-shift keying (CSK) is a visible light communication in an intensity modulation scheme. It communicates information imperceptibly through the variety of the color emitted by red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes. CSK decreases the potential for human health problems identified with variances in light intensity.

  1. What is CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access)?

CSMA strategy was created to diminish the chances of collisions when at least two stations begin conveying their messages over the data link layer. In CSMA, the node confirms the absence of other traffic before sending on a common transmission medium. Carrier sense Multiple Access senses network signals on the carrier before sending any information. CSMA is executed in Ethernet networks with more than one network device connected to it.CSMA is a segment of the Media access control (MAC) protocol.             

  1. What is CSoHSPA (Circuit Switched Voice over HSPA)?  

Voice services over wireless networks have generally been given by circuit-switched (CS) frameworks where a dedicated channel is utilized for each voice call. HSDPA and HSUPA together called HSPA, have been normalized in 3GPP. They gave huge enhancement over data rate and packet delay decrease by utilizing highlights. The capacity upgrades of CSoHS are because of time diversity acquired by the utilization of HARQ and the DTX which decrease the absolute transmitted power and interference on the uplink. On the downlink, the high CSoHS capacities obtained can utilize delay and channel-sensitive MAC- hs scheduling and asset allocation.

  1. What is CSMA‐CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access and Collision Avoidance? 

Carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) in computer networking, is a network multiple access strategy in which carrier detecting is utilized, but nodes attempt to stay away from collisions by starting transmission after the channel is detected to be “idle”. At the point when they do convey, nodes send their packet information. CSMA/CA enhances network traffic as it needs to convey a signal to the network even before communicating any genuine information. 

  1.  What is CSS (chirp spread spectrum)?

Chirp spread spectrum (CSS) utilizes wideband linear frequency modulated chirp pulses to encode data.  A chirp is a sinusoidal signal whose frequency increments or diminishes over time. Chirp spread spectrum was initially intended to compete with ultra-wideband for precision ranging and low-rate wireless networks in the 2.45 GHz band. Chip spread is required for low power usage and low data rate applications. 

  1. What is CSS (CSG subscriber server)?

The CSG subscriber server saves essential data for roaming subscriber’s CSG access in the VPLMN,  for each roaming endorser requesting access in a CSG where the function is upheld and permitted. CSG provision by the CSG manager is done by dealing with the list of users per CSG and accessing the function of how to oversee CSG data in UE. At the point when a CSG subscription is dropped, it should be managed as a terminated subscription in HSS subscription information to permit the execution of the appropriate procedure so it is eliminated from UE’s Allowed CSG list or Operator CSG list first.

  1. What is CT (Call Traces)?

Call tracing is the strategy that allows an entitled user to be illuminated about the routing of information for setting up the associations and decide the whole route for the beginning of the destination. There are two types of call tracing. The first is Permanent call tracing that allows the tracing of all calls. The second one is On-demand call tracing that allows tracing, upon request, of a particular call, given that the called party dials an assigned code immediately after the call to be traced is disconnected.

  1. What is CTCH (Common Traffic Channel)?

CTCH is a point to multipoint unidirectional channel, used to convey dedicated information of the user for all or a group of specified UE (User Equipment).

  1. What CTD (Cell Transfer Delay)?

CTD is the time span between the sending time and the receiving time of a cell between two monitoring points (MP). CTD differs from one cell to another. The CTD has three segments: The primary type is Propagation delay is the time important to convey bits through the media that associates two network components. The second is Switching delay is the time interval between the appearance of a cell in one of the switch’s input ports and its accessibility in an output port. And the third one is the Queuing delay is the time interval that the cell stays inside the switches queues; this value relies upon the network load.

  1. What is CTF (Channel transfer function)?

The 5G BTS gNB can be separated into two entities that are Centralized Unit and Distributed Unit. CU offers assistance for the higher layers of the protocol stack, for example, SDAP, PDCP while DU offers assistance for the lower layers of the protocol. SDAP layer will not be available in the CU is associated with a 4G Core network, 5G core network is used to support SDAP. There is a solitary CU for each gNB, but one CU manages multiple DUs.

  1. What is CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture)?

CUDA is introduced by Nvidia. It permits software developers and computer programmers to utilize a CUDA-empowered graphics processing unit (GPU) for useful processing, a methodology named GPGPU (general-purpose computing on graphics processing units). The CUDA stage is a software layer that provides direct admittance to the GPU’s virtual instruction.

The CUDA stage is intended to work with programming languages like C, C++, and Fortran. CUDA has many advantages using GPGPU, in this code can read from arbitrary addresses in memory, Unified virtual memory. CUDA exposes a fast shared memory region that can be utilized as a user-managed cache, enabling higher bandwidth.

  1. What is CUG (Closed user group)?

A closed user group (CUG) is a group arrangement that bound access beyond the characterized set of group individuals. This sort of arrangement can be valuable in digital and telecommunications service plans. A closed user group can make and receive calls. This service is provided by versatile administrators to portable endorsers. CUG members can settle on and receive calls to and from different networks outside the CUG bunch as well. This assistance is appropriate for SMS. 

  1. What is CUPS (Control and User Plane Separation (EPC nodes))?

CUPS of Evolved Packet Core empowers adaptable network deployment and operation, by distributed and independent scaling between control plane and user plane functions, while not influencing the functionality of the current nodes subject to this split. It is used to diminish latency on application administration. And it assists an enhancement in Data Traffic, by empowering users to add user plane nodes without changing the range of SGW-C, PGW-C, and TDF-C in the network.

  1. What is CUS (collective use of spectrum)? 

Collective Use of Spectrum permits a limitless number of autonomous users or devices to access a spectrum in a similar range of assigned CUS frequencies simultaneously and in a specific geographic region under a well-defined arrangement of conditions.  Collective utilization of Spectrum approaches and investigates the requirement to recognize high-frequency bands to which any redefined. The methodology might actually be applied. 

  1. What is CV (connectivity verification)?

Connectivity Verification (CV) is the function of MPLS-TP. CV finds an association between two MEPs within one MEG or in various MEGs. CV is additionally a proactive OAM activity. It empowers an MEP to report when error packets are received. If a CV-empowered MEP gets a packet from an LSP and examines that packet has been sent in error along an LSP, the MEP will report an alarm showing a sending error. 

  1. What is CVAA (Communications and Video Accessibility Act)?

The Communications and Video Accessibility Act was established on October 8, 2010, to guarantee that people with disabilities have access to the innovative communications innovations of the 21st Century.  The CVAA updates federal communications law to build the access of people with disabilities to present-day communications. The CVAA ensures that accessibility laws enacted in the 1980s and 1990s are brought up to date with 21st-century technologies, including new computerized, broadband, and portable innovations. 

  1. What is CW (code word)?

A code word is a value of a normalized code or convention. Every codeword is gathered as per the particular standards of the code and allotted a unique meaning. Code words are normally utilized for reasons of reliability, clarity, brevity, or secrecy.

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