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  1. What is CLSM (Closed Loop Spatial Multiplexing)? 

Closed Loop Spatial Multiplexing form of LTE MIMO is the same as the open-loop version, but as the name demonstrates it has feedback joined to close the loop. A PMI, Precoding Matrix Indicator is fed back from the UE to the base station. This empowers the transmitter to pre-code the information to improve the transmission and empower the receiver to more easily separate the various information streams.

  1. What is CLT (Central Limit Theorem)? 

The central limit theorem (CLT) defines the dispersion of samples to approximate a normal distribution as the sample size expands if all samples are indistinguishable in size, and regardless of the population distribution shape.

The theorem implies that probabilistic and statistical techniques that work for normal distributions can be relevant to numerous problems including different types of distributions.

  1. What is CM (connection management)?   

Connection Management (CM) is utilized to set up and discharge the control plane signaling association among UE and AMF. At the point when a Versatile needs to communicate with a 5G core network because it was in an idle state for some time and the network eliminates the resources to information data temporarily, it requires setting up an association to the Access Management Function (AMF). This is known as Connection Management.

  1. What is CM (Coded Modulation)? 

​Coded modulation (CM) alludes to a framework where an encoder is attached with a higher-order modulator with more than one bit per symbol to expand the spectral efficiency. The CM framework can likewise be reached out to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frameworks, consisting of a few antennas at the transmitter and at the receiver. 

  1. What is CLI (Calling line identification)?

Calling line identification allows the individual getting the call to see the caller’s number. This covers caller ID displays as well as the 1471 service. It allows the caller to find out the number of the individual reacting to the telephone. Caller ID data normally comprises the caller’s telephone number while CNAM includes the caller’s name. A modem can pass CLID information to a computer for purposes of call blocking, but modems in different nations have different structures, causing equipment or programming contradictions.

  1. What is CM (Configuration Management)?

Configuration management (CM) is used to set up and maintain consistency of a product’s performance, functional, and physical attributes with its needs, design, and operational information throughout its life. CM has also utilized IT administration management as characterized by ITIL. The CM processes orderly management of framework data and framework changes for valuable purposes as to amend capacity; further develop execution, unwavering quality, or viability; expand life; diminish cost; decrease hazard and risk. 

  1. What is CMAC (Cipher-Based Message Authentication Code)?

Cipher-based Message Authentication Code is a block cipher-based message validation code algorithm. Cipher-based message authentication codes (or CMACs) are apparatus for figuring message confirmation codes utilizing a block cipher coupled with a secret key. CMAC is also used to verify both the integrity and authenticity of a message. 

It may be utilized to give affirmation of the authenticity and the integrity of binary data.

  1. What is CMAS (commercial mobile alert service)?

The CMAS program started in the United States in 2006. It is used in cases of emergency, where the president could be in touch with the public. The CMAS network will permit the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), to acknowledge and aggregate alerts from the President of the United States, and state and local emergency operations centers, and then transfer the alerts over a protected interface to taking part in commercial mobile service providers (CMSPs). These participating CMSPs will then distribute the alerts to their customers. between the issuance of the second and third Report & Order documents. 

  1. What is CMC (connection mobility control)?

   Connection mobility control is the procedure of tracking the mobile telephones or devices locations that are associated with a communication framework and coordinating about the association is kept up with as the device transfers through a framework or between networks.

  1. What is CMDB (Configuration Management Database)?

A configuration management database (CMDB) is a file, in the form of a standardized database. CLUB has all important data about the hardware and software components utilized in an organization’s information technology administrations and the connections between those components. A CMDB offers an organized view of information from any desired perspective.

  1. What is CMOS ( Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor)?

CMOS is a sort of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor fabrication that utilizes p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions. CMOS method is utilized for developing integrated circuit (IC) chips, including microprocessors, microcontrollers, memory chips, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, RF circuits (RF CMOS). 

  1. What is CMP (Certificate Management Protocol)?

CMP is a very adaptable protocol, which assists any kind of cryptography. CMP messages are independent, build the protocol convention free of the transport mechanism and give end-to-end safety and are opposed to EST. CMP messages utilizing the DER strategy are encoded in ASN.1. 

  1. What is CNR (Channel-to-noise ratio)?

The carrier-to-noise ratio is the proportion of the received modulated carrier signal power C to the received noise power N after the receiver filters. After demodulation CNR is utilized to recognize the CNR of the radio frequency passband signal from the SNR of an analog baseband message signal, for instance, an audio frequency analog message signal. If this distinction is not required, the term SNR is generally utilized rather than CNR, with a similar definition.

  1. What is CNSS (Compass navigation satellite system)?

China is currently fostering its own navigation satellite constellation known as CNSS, in the first decade of the 21st century. It consists of two separate satellite constellations. It has the Chinese name BeiDou-2. BeiDou means “Compass”. BeiDou is the Chinese name of the Big Dipper constellation. The BeiDou-2 system will depend on its first regional Compass Satellite Navigation Experimental System (BeiDou-1). The BeiDou-2 was launched in 2005 and reported in October 2006. 

  1. What is CNT (Computer network technologies)?

Computer network technology permits organizations to transmit information digitally by using information systems. At the point when the information transmission in between two or more computers should be done utilizing a communication medium, then it is called a computer network. When the information transfers in between mobile devices then it is known as a mobile network. When the information transfers in between mobile devices and computers then it is known as a device network.

  1. What is CVRN (Cooperative Vehicular Relay Network)?

In cooperative networking, neighboring nodes can assist each other by transmitting the messages to accomplish better communication. This paradigm of communications where different vehicles are involved in aiding transmission is alluded to as cooperative vehicular networking (CVN). In the course of recent years, specialists have widely researched the capability of cooperative communication in designing protocols that include the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC), and network layers. 

  1. What is CVAA (Communications and Video Accessibility Act)? 

Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA) is a United States accessibility law. President Barack Obama Signed on October 8, 2010, the bill amended the Communications Act of 1934. This incorporates updated prerequisites for guaranteeing the accessibility of “modern” telecommunications to individuals with disabilities. 

  1. What is CN (Core Network)?

The core network is the segment of a network that associates the various segments of the access network. The core network additionally offers the gateway to different networks.

This is an evolved UMTS Core Network infrastructure, integrating circuit and packet-switched traffic. It provides various administrations to the users interconnected by the access network. Its main function is to direct telephone calls over the public switched telephone network.

CN means the profoundly functional communication facilities that interconnect essential nodes. The core network conveys routes to exchange data between different sub-networks.

  1. What is CN (Check Node)?

Check node is utilized to analyze the format of a message that is showing up on its input terminal with a message format that individuals supply when configuring the Check node. Utilize the Check node to guarantee that the message is routed appropriately through the message flow. Check node is accessible in Developer, Application Integration, Suite, Standard, Advanced, Express operation modes.

  1. What is CN (Cognitive Networks)?

A cognitive network (CN) is another sort of information network that utilizes cutting-edge technology to examine some issues faced by networks. The cognitive network is not quite the same as cognitive radio (CR) as it covers each layer of the OSI model. 

A cognitive network is distinct from other intelligent communicational technologies because it has its own end-to-end goal regarding information stream. A cognitive network utilizes a networking architecture known as Embedded Wireless Interconnection (EWI). A cognitive network utilizes abstract wireless linkages.

  1. What is CNI (Container network interface)?

Container Network Interface consists of specifications for writing plugins to configure network interfaces in Linux containers, along with various upheld plugins. A CNI module is answerable for embedding a network interface into the container network namespace and making any required improvements on the host. It then, at that point allots an IP address to the interface and establishes the routes.

  1. What is CNPC (Control and non-payload communications)? 

Control and Non-Payload Communications is basic empowerment for UAS integration into the NAS. For UAS secured spectrum CNPC is needed. Line-of-Sight and Beyond-Line-of-Sight are both necessary. ITU-R provides the range prerequisites: 34 MHz for the satellite-based LOS CNPC; 56 MHz for the satellite-based BLOS CNPC links; LOS CNPC Spectrum has been assigned during WRC-12; C-Band is 5030-5091 MHz and L-Band 960-977MHz are dispensed.

  1. What is Co-MIMO (Collaborative MIMO)? 

Cooperative multiple-input multiple-output is a method that can exploit the spatial domain of versatile fading channels to carry execution enhancements to wireless communication systems. Conventional MIMO frameworks, called point-to-point MIMO, require both the sender and receiver of a communication link to be equipped with various antennas. Cooperative MIMO utilizes distributed antennas on various radio devices to accomplish close to the theoretical gains of MIMO. Cooperative MIMO is used to group multiple devices into a virtual antenna array to achieve MIMO communications. 

  1. What is CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol)? 

Constrained Application Protocol is an Internet Application Protocol. It is used for constrained devices known as nodes. It empowers nodes to communicate with the extensive Internet utilizing comparable protocols. CoAP is intended for utilization among the devices on the similar constrained network between devices and general nodes on the Internet. CoAP depends on UDP security attributes to ensure data. The smallest CoAP message is 4 bytes. CoAP utilizes two message types, requests, and responses, utilizing a simple, binary, base header format. 

  1. What is COBRA (Common Object Requesting Broker Architecture)? 

The Common Object Request Broker Architecture empowers software components written in various computer languages and running on numerous computers. CORBA is used for disseminating objects across networks so that operations on those objects can be called remotely. CORBA is not related to a particular programming language, and any language with a CORBA restriction can be utilized to call. CORBA utilizes an object-oriented model although the frameworks that utilize the CORBA do not have to be object-arranged. 

  1. What is  COC (Cell Outage Compensation)? 

Cell outage compensation is a segment of the Self-Organising Networks concept for versatile wireless networks. It targets moderating the debasement of coverage, capacity, and administration quality caused by a cell outage. Upon detection of such an outage, cell outage compensation tunes an assortment of control boundaries. Cell outage management structure proposes substantial compensation algorithms and evaluates the accomplished performance impacts in different scenarios. 

  1. What is CoDel (Controlled delay)?

Controlled delay is a scheduling algorithm. It is used for the network scheduler. Controlled delay is created by Van Jacobson and Kathleen Nichols. It is intended to defeat bufferbloat in networking hardware, like switches, by setting boundaries on the defer network packets insight as they pass through buffers in hardware. CoDel targets enhancement on the overall performance of the random early detection (RED) algorithm and by being simpler to control.

  1. What is CNR (Channel-to-noise ratio)?

The carrier-to-noise ratio is the proportion of the received modulated carrier signal power C to the received noise power N after the receiver filters. After demodulation CNR is utilized to recognize the CNR of the radio frequency passband signal from the SNR of an analog baseband message signal, for instance, an audio frequency analog message signal. If this distinction is not required, the term SNR is generally utilized rather than CNR, with a similar definition.

  1. What is CNN (Convolutional neural network)?

A convolutional neural network is usually applied to analyze visual imagery. It depends on the shared-weight structure of the convolution filters that slide along input attributes and give translation interpretation equivariant reactions. CNN utilizes minimal preprocessing contrasted with other image classification algorithms. This implies that the network figures out how to improve the filters through automated learning. Average methods of regularization, or forestalling overfitting, include: punishing boundaries during preparing or managing availability.  

  1. What is Coop-OA (cooperative OA)|?

The cooperative OA framework is a subsystem of the ceramic cloud method service integration platform, dependent on SaaS. It incorporates and distributes the resources of different subsystems in this platform, by the utilization of technology of single sign-on (SSO) and role-based rights management. A framework for multi-tenant business process customization is pulled into this framework, this framework executes multi-tenant business process customization for meeting individual business prerequisites of various company tenant’s online offices.

  1. What is COP (common operating picture)

 A common operational picture (COP) is an indistinguishable display of applicable data shared by at least one Command. COP method unites disparate information streams; and although the sources of this information differ from one industry then onto the next, they’re all basically intended for a similar reason — conveying actionable intelligence in real-time to develop organizational decision-making.

  1. What is CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture)

The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is characterized by the Object Management Group (OMG) that empowers software parts written in multiple computer languages and running on various computers to cooperate.

 CORBA is not connected with a specific programming language, and any language with a CORBA restriction can be utilized to call and execute CORBA objects. Objects are described in a syntax called Interface Definition Language (IDL).

  1. What is CORESET (Control resource set)?

Control Resource Set is a bunch of physical resources inside a particular region in the Downlink Resource Grid and is utilized to convey PDCCH (DCI). NR PDCCHs are explicitly intended to send in a configurable control resource set. A CORESET is used to the control area in LTE yet is summed up as in the arrangement of RBs and the arrangement of OFDM images in which it is found are configurable with the comparing PDCCH search spaces.  Such arrangement adaptations of control regions incorporate time, frequency, numerologies, and operating points to empower NR to address a wide range of utilization cases.

  1. What is CoS (class of service)?

Class of service (COS or CoS) is utilized in information and voice conventions to separate the sorts of payloads contained in the packet being sent. The target of such separation is by and large connected with appointing needs to the information payload or access levels to the call. CoS innovation is more straightforward to oversee and more adaptable as an organization fills in design and traffic volume. There are three primary CoS innovations: (1) 802.1p Layer 2 Tagging, (2) Type of Service (ToS), (3) Differentiated Services (DiffServ)

  1. What is COTM (Communications on the move)?

COTM is utilized to depict versatile communications ability, especially in military applications, concerning Beyond Line of Sight, or BLOS communications. An imperative part for military command and control (C2) is the capacity to convey, share data and offer support for mobile groups of personnel anytime and anywhere.

  1. What is COTS (commercial off-the-shelf)?

Commercial off-the-shelf is the software or hardware items that are ready-made and ready to move to the overall population. For instance, Microsoft Office is a COTS item that is a packaged software solution for businesses. COTS items are intended to be executed effectively into existing frameworks without the requirement for customization.

  1. What is CP (control plane)?

The control plane is the segment of a network that conveys signaling traffic and is liable for routing. This incorporates conventions and components to spread data as well as algorithms for designing an optimal path between endpoints.

  1. What is CP (Collision Probability)?

The collision probability is a strategy utilized for settling the integral form of the transport equation. It depends on the fact that the flux at a given point in space is proportionate to the neutron source multiplied by an exponential attenuation factor which is proportionate to the optical way that should be crossed by the neutron generated at the neutron source to arrive at flux at the space. This path is the optical path.

  1. What is CP-OFDM (Cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency division multiple access)?

CP-OFDM is utilized for 5G New Radio. Its activity is basically the same as that of OFDM utilized in LTE. CP-OFDM attributes variable subcarrier spacing named “numerology”.  CP-OFDM can use 15kHz, 30kHz, 60kHz, 120kHz, and so forth, where LTE utilizes a fixed 15kHz subcarrier separation. The cyclic prefix duration per symbol changes by changing in Subcarrier spacing. The cyclic prefix is utilized in Frequency Division Multiplexing schemes. It overcomes intersymbol interference, ISI in OFDM.

  1. What is CPCH (Common Packet Channel)?

The common packet channel (CPCH) has been incorporated in the third generation wideband direct-sequence code-division multiple access technical specifications to fulfill this developing requirement.

CPCH is the proficient wireless Internet mechanism in W-CDMA. It works at all rates and assists 2.048 Mbps if the entire cell were dedicated to packet information services. The CPCH is range proficient when contrasted with the DCH method of activity in the uplink and downlink directions. The CPCH needs fewer channel cards in the base node. The utilization of the CPCH decreased by 24% in power utilization in the MS when contrasted to DCH.

  1. What is CPCI (Compact PCI)?

CompactPCI was presented around 1995. It has the objective to give way to deal with building embedded frameworks. CompactPCI is an adaptable form factor. It is reasonable for utilization in a wide range of industries incorporating industrial, defense, transportation, telecommunications, and others.  Applications utilizing these boards have accomplished long life cycles, the modularity empowering technology transitions when needed.

  1. What is CPICH (common pilot channel)?

Common Pilot Channel is utilized in UMTS to empower channel assessment. The CPICH utilizes a pre-characterized bit sequence. This permits the User Equipment to adjust the channel to accomplish a phase reference with the Synchronisation Channel. It also permits assessments in terms of power control. A similar channel code is constantly utilized on the Primary CPICH. With a Spreading Factor of 256, It has a rate of 30Kbps.

  1. What is CPM (Continuous-phase-modulated)?

Continuous phase modulation (CPM) is a strategy for the modulation of information. This is generally utilized in wireless modems. In contrast to other coherent digital phase modulation strategies where the carrier phase suddenly resets, with CPM the carrier phase is modulated in a continuous way. CPM is executed as a constant-envelope waveform. Therefore, CPM is attractive because the phase continuity outputs high spectral efficiency and the consistent envelope excellent power efficiency outputs.

  1. What is CPM (Converged IP Messaging)?

The Converged IP Messaging (CPM) Enabler gives the convergence of multimedia communication services while utilizing normalized service functionalities from existing communication enablers such as Instant Messaging. All CPM-based Services will utilize the functional components and interfaces given by the framework. Non-CPM Communication Services need Interworking Functions that give planning between the CPM Enabler and the various advances to communicate with the system. 

  1. What is CPP (Controller placement problem)?

The controller placement problem (CPP)  is one of the vital difficulties of programming characterized networks to enhance performance. CPP comprises picking the controller areas that limit the latency between switches and controllers. 

Controller placement problem comprises deciding the areas of controller modules to limit communication latencies and deciding the number of controllers per module to assist the load. 

  1. What is CPRI (common public radio interface)?

CPRI links are utilized to convey information between cell sites and base stations. The Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) standard characterizes an interface between Radio Equipment Control (REC) and Radio Equipment (RE). The aim of CPRI is to permit substitution of a coax cable association between a radio transceiver and a base station, so the association can be made to a remote.

  1. What is CP (Cyclic Prefix)? 

Cyclic prefix alludes to the prefixing of a symbol. The receiver is regularly arranged to discard the cyclic prefix samples. The cyclic prefix serves two purposes:

First is, It gives a guard interval to remove intersymbol interference from the symbol.

Second is, It repeats the finish of the symbol so the linear convolution of a recurrence multipath channel can be displayed as circular convolution, which changes to the frequency domain via a discrete Fourier transform. This methodology obliges basic frequency domain processing.

  1.  What is CPS (cognitive positioning system)?

Cognitive positioning system (CPS) that accomplishes precision adaptation, the realization of location awareness in cognitive radios. It empowers the client or wireless device itself to change situating accuracy adaptively. The proposed CPS is made out of two modes; bandwidth determination and enhanced dynamic spectrum management (EDSM). For both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and multipath channels, Bandwidth assurance conditions are inferred through Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). An EDSM framework giving the optimum accessible transmission capacity to the CPS is proposed.

  1. What is CPS (Cyber physical security)?

The Cyber-Physical Systems Security (CPSSEC) project tends to address security concerns for cyber-physical frameworks (CPS) and internet of things devices. CPS and IoT play an important role in critical infrastructure and regular life. Instances of CPS are Cars, clinical devices, building controls, and the smart grid. Each incorporates smart networked frameworks with embedded sensors, processors that detect and communicate with the actual world and assist real-time, ensuring execution in security basic applications.

  1. What is CQI (channel quality indicator)?

CQI is utilized by the versatile to demonstrate the channel quality to the eNB. The CQI range is between 0 and 15. This demonstrates the degree of modulation and coding the UE could work. CQI is an indicator conveying the data on communication channel quality. CQI is the data that UE transmit to the network and essentially it infers the two

i) Show the status of Current Communication Channel Quality.

ii) show the value transport block size of UE needs to get the information, which in turn can be directly changed over into throughput.

  1. What is CR (Cognitive radio)?

In Cognitive radio (CR), the transmitter/receiver can examine which communication channels are utilized and which are not. The transceiver then immediately moves into vacant channels, while avoiding occupied ones. This optimizes the utilization of accessible radio-frequency (RF) spectrum. It likewise reduces impedance to different users. By staying away from occupied channels, it expands spectrum proficiency and enhances the quality of service (QoS) for subscribers.

  1. What is CR-NOMA (Cognitive radio inspired NOMA)?

CR-NOMAis utilized to accomplish high spectral productivity. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has the capacity to be adjusted in the 5G organization. The number of subscribers can be built in the framework by using NOMA. Incorporating NOMA strategies into Cognitive radio networks incurs severe technical difficulties. The MIMO methods to CRNs will be utilized further to improve the performance of NOMA. It was defined that the performance of a Cognitive Radio Network (CRNs) with NOMA can be fundamentally enhanced by utilizing MIMO methods.

  1. What is CRAN (Centralized Radio Access Network)?

C-RAN is a cloud computing-based design for radio access networks that assist 2G, 3G, 4G, and wireless communication norms. 

Centralized Radio Access Network, was first presented by the China Mobile Research Institute in 2010. C-RAN splits the traditional cell-based network infrastructure into separate parts that meet the necessities of 5G while assisting the existing 2G, 3G, and 4G frameworks. It incorporates concentrated processing, collaborative radio, and radio networking. 

  1. What is CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)?

A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a mistake identifying code usually utilized in digital networks and storage devices to recognize unplanned changes in information. In view of the rest of a polynomial division of their substance, information entering these frameworks get short check value connected. The computation is repeatedly working and, in the event the check values do not match, corrective action can be taken against data corruption. CRCs can be utilized for mistake correction.  

  1. What is CRF (Charging Rules Function)?

The CRFs role is to give operators characterized charging rules appropriate to each service information stream. The CRF chooses the pertinent charging rules dependent on data given by the P-CSCF, like Application Identifier, audio, video, etc., Application Data Rate, etc.

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