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  1. What is a CDTM (connection-dependent threshold model). 

Connection-dependent threshold model (CDTM), which resembles the threshold models, but the state dependency is individualized among call associations. The proposed CDTM summarizes the existing threshold models as well as covers the EMLM and the retry models by choosing the threshold boundaries properly.

  1. What is CDV (Cell Delay Variation)? 

The Cell Delay Variation is a term utilized in the Asynchronous Transfer Mode to depict the time distinction that is acceptable between cells being introduced at the receiving host. In an asynchronous transfer mode network, Cells progressing along with a virtual connection experience random delays. These random delays induce an alteration in the initial time structure of any cell stream going through the network. This process is known as cell delay variation (CDV).

  1. What is CE (Coverage enhancement)? 

Coverage improvement depends on the rule of prolonged transmission time that utilizes the fact that numerous IoT applications have relaxed needs on information rate. The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for Internet-of-Things has standardized Coverage Enhancement (CE) to attach devices in challenging radio conditions with cellular organizations. CE consumes radio assets and should be executed for various applications. Utilization of CE for associated vehicles in a resource-efficient way. 

  1. What is CE (Channel Element)? 

Channel Element (CE) depicts the SW licensed capacity resources needed for a dedicated channel. The channel elements needed in an RBS depend on the traffic type and are subject to the radio bearers to be utilized. CE is a basic unit that estimates the channel demodulation capabilities of a NodeB. CEs are classified into uplink (UL) CEs and downlink (DL) CEs. First, is UL CE required to be consumed by a UL 12.2 kbit/s voice service and 3.4 kbit/s signalings. Second is DL CE required to be consumed by a DL 12.2 kbit/s voice service and 3.4 kbit/s signalings.

  1. What is Customer-premises equipment?

Customer-premises equipment is any terminal situated at a subscriber’s premises. It is associated with a carrier’s circuit at the demarcation point also called “demarc”. The demarc is directly settled in a structure to separate customer equipment from the equipment situated in the central office of the communications service provider. CPE alludes to devices like phones, network switches, residential gateways (RG), set-top boxes, routers, fixed-mobile convergence products, and Internet access gateways that empower consumers to access providers’ communication frameworks and disseminate them in a residence with a local area network (LAN).

  1. What is cell ID (cell identity)?

The cell identity in GSM and UMTS is a 16 bit identifier. When attached with the Location Area Identity or Routing Area Identity the outcome is termed the Cell Global Identity. Cell Global Identity (CGI) is a Base Transceiver Station globally unique identifier in cell phone networks. It comprises four sections: Mobile Country Code (MCC), Mobile Network Code (MNC), Location Area Code (LAC), and Cell Identification (CI). 

  1. What is CELP (Code Excited Linear Prediction)?

Code-excited linear prediction (CELP) is an algorithm of linear predictive speech coding. It was first created in 1985. It gave preferred quality than existing low-bit-rate algorithms, like residual-excited linear prediction (RELP) and linear predictive coding (LPC) vocoders. It is likewise utilized in MPEG-4 Audio speech coding. CELP is utilized as a nonexclusive term for a class of algorithms.

CELP depends on a source-filter model of speech, where linear prediction is utilized to demonstrate the filtering effect of the vocal tract.

  1. What is CEOFDM (Constant envelope OFDM)?

Constant envelope OFDM (CE-OFDM) changes the OFDM signal, to a signal intended for efficient power enhancement, via phase modulation. At the receiver, the inverse transformation – phase demodulation – is related prior to the conventional OFDM demodulator. The execution of CE-OFDM is dissected in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels. 

  1. What is CEP (Constant Envelope Precoding)?

Constant-envelope precoding (CEP) depends on an interference-driven advancement region for generic phase-shift-keying modulations in the multi-user (MU) multiple-input-multiple-output downlink.  There are two unique CEP approaches: a first strategy is, where the power to a specific value is fixed at each antenna, and a second approach, where first relax the power constraints to be lower than a characterized parameter and then implement CEP transmission. 

  1. What is CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administration)?

The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) was set up on June 26, 1959. It is set up by 19 European states in Montreux, Switzerland, as a planning body for European state telecommunications and postal organizations. CEPT’s exercises incorporated cooperation on commercial, operational, regulatory, and technical normalization issues. The work of CEPT is directed by three self-governing business Committees: The Electronic Communications Committee (ECC), The European Committee for Postal Regulation (CERP), and The Committee for ITU Policy (Com-ITU).

  1. What is CER (Customer Edge Router)?

A customer edge router is a switch situated on the client premises that gives an Ethernet interface between the user’s LAN and the supplier’s central network. CE routers are provider routers and provider edge routers are parts of a Multiprotocol label switching architecture. Customer Edge (CE) Router attached to Provider Edge (PE) Router. Customer Edge Router can either be managed by the user or service provider.

  1. What is CES (Circuit Emulation Services)?

Circuit emulation service is a strategy through which information can be sent over ATM, Ethernet, or MPLS networks. This data is without error and has a steady delay, and can be utilized for time-division multiplexing (TDM) frameworks. This technology can be executed through Structure-Agnostic TDM over Packet (SAToP) and Circuit Emulation Service over Packet-Switched Network (CESoPSN) protocols. CES was presented for ATM organizations. 

  1. What is CES (Customer edge switching)? 

Customer Edge Switching (CES) is a test Internet design that gives reliable multi-domain communications. It gives versatility against safety threats because domains negotiate inbound and outbound policies before admitting new traffic. It is used to extend Network Address Translator, it controls the flow admission depending on receiver/sender policy, and CES can remove spoofing. CES promotes security among organizations and Can be conveyed one organization at a time.

  1. What is CET (carrier Ethernet)?

Carrier Ethernet permits network suppliers to give Ethernet administrations to users and to utilize Ethernet technology. It empowers Internet access and communication among local area networks (LANs) of business, private, and government organizations. A carrier Ethernet network gives service to various networks. A carrier Ethernet network covers a wide area and outside a single building. Carrier Ethernet gives normalized services: Ethernet Virtual Private Line, Ethernet Virtual Private LAN, and Ethernet Virtual Private Tree. Scalable bandwidth going from 1 Mbps to 1 Gbps is provided by iConverter NIDs.

  1. What is CET (Carrier Ethernet Transport)?

      Carrier Ethernet Transport (CET) is used to build adaptable transport infrastructure for supporting Ethernet. Carrier Ethernet Transport integrates intelligent WDM with Ethernet Tunnels. Carrier Ethernet Transport (CET) gives the cost-viability of native Ethernet with the reliability and power of WDM to deliver unparalleled adaptability, proficiency, and cost reserve funds. It increases the amount of Ethernet traffic that can be switched and routed without leaving the optical transport layer and decreases the load on expensive MPLS systems and precious LSPs.

  1. What is CF (Crest Factor)?

Crest factor is the proportion of the instantaneous peak amplitude of a waveform, to its root mean square RMS value. The crest factor shows how outrageous the peaks are in a waveform. Higher crest factors show peaks. The crest factor determines the properties of an electrical framework like the immaculateness of a signal or waveform, and the ability of a system, for example, a power supply to output a particular current or voltage.

  1. What is CFB (Call Forwarding Busy)?

In case the called subscriber is busy, Call Forwarding Busy assistance redirects incoming calls, while CFNR redirects incoming calls when the incoming call is not replied to.  Call Forwarding–Busy (CFB) grants a called person to have the system transmit message box or incoming calls addressed to the called subscriber’s public identity to another public

identity when the person is considered to be busy. CFB does not affect a subscriber’s ability to make calls. A subscriber may choose a forward-to-identity when the subscriber enrolls in the CFB. 

  1. What is CFI (control format indicator)?

CFI is an indicator measure of OFDM symbols that are utilized for conveying control channels at each subframe. The Control Format Indicator value characterizes the time span, in OFDM symbols, of the Physical Downlink Control Channel transmission for a specific downlink subframe, in LTE. The CFI is sent utilizing the Physical Control Format Indicator Channel. The CFI is restricted to the value 1, 2, or 3. With more than ten resource blocks of bandwidths, the number of OFDM symbols utilized to contain the downlink control data is equivalent to the genuine CFI value. 

  1. What is CFNL (Communication forwarding on not logged in)?

The Communication forwarding on not logged in administration empowers a served subscriber to divert incoming communications which are addressed to the served subscriber’s address, to another subscriber in the case where the served user is not logged in. The CFNL service works on all communications, or on those related to determining basic services.

As a service supplier option, a subscription option can be given to empower the served subscriber to get a sign when the served user logs out, that the CFNL service has been enacted.

  1. What is CFNR (Communication forwarding no reply)?

The Communication forwarding no reply service empowers a served subscriber to have the network redirect to another subscriber, communications that are addressed to the served user’s address. The association is not set up within a characterized timeframe. CFNR supplementary service does not affect the served subscriber’s capability to start communications. The CFNR service can only be invoked by the network after the communication has been provided to the served user and a sign that the called user is being informed of the communication has been received.

  1. What is CFNRc (Call Forwarding Not Reachable)?

When the user is not reachable to another user, the CFNRc service empowers a subscriber to have the network divert every single incoming communication. The CFNRc service may work on all communications or those connected with determined services. CFNR supplementary service does not affect the served subscriber’s capability to start communications. 

  1. What is CFO (carrier frequency offset)?

Carrier frequency offset might influence the baseband receiver design. When the oscillator signal for down-conversion in the receiver does not synchronize with the carrier signal contained in the received signal, Carrier frequency offset frequently happens. This process can be credited to two significant methods: first is that mismatch frequency in the transmitter and the receiver oscillators; second is the Doppler impact as the transmitter or receiver moves.  At the point when this happens, the received signal will be moved in frequency.  Carrier frequency offset consistently exists regardless of whether there is no Doppler impact.

  1. What is CFP (contention-free period)?  

The Contention free period is utilized in wireless networks assisting the IEEE 802.11 standard. It characterizes a time period during which admittance to the Wireless Medium is without contention. This is constrained by both the PCF and HCF. When the AP is working in PCF mode Contention-free Period (CFP) – happens. During the CFP, the AP polls customers in PCF mode about their aim to transmit information. This is a technique for focusing on customers.”

  1. What is CFR (crest factor reduction)? 

CFR is a procedure utilized to decrease the Peak To Average Power Ratio of the transmitted signals so that the power amplifier can work all the more proficiently. There are many distinct CFR algorithms. CFR procedures can be utilized in conjunction with DPD to enhance the overall linearization of the framework. 

  1. What is CFU (Call Forward Unreachable)? 

When the device is not accessible, Call Forwarding Not Reachable permits sending all incoming calls to an alternate phone number. Call forward inaccessible permits to forward phone lines to another number of choices in the event administrations are down, without having to call into a customer care number for support. It is a feature established ahead so that if for any condition your calls cannot associate, a line was cut, or the phone system is down, that call will automatically forward to a pre-assigned number that the user has picked.

  1. What is CG (Charging Gateway function)?

Charging Gateway Function (CGF) is assisting GTP Prime protocol that is able to accept any record in any principles-based format created by the network and producing rich records in the format needed by the downstream framework. It assists in protecting investment in existing BSS/OSS frameworks by interfacing to send data to the downstream framework in the required format. It assists GTO Prime protocol, capable of changing standard format records into rich record designs needed by downstream frameworks.

  1. What is CG‐NAT (Carrier‐grade network address translation)?

Carrier-Grade Network Address Translation (CGN) is NAT that converts private IPv4 addresses into public IPv4 addresses. CGN utilizes Network Address and Port Translation techniques to aggregate different private IPv4 addresses into less public IPv4 addresses. CGN does not assist integration with Cisco Performance Routing (PfR). This permits ISPs to safeguard their own public IPv4 addresses, process subscriber traffic through the service provider’s private IPv4 network, and assist subscribers that likewise have their own private IPv4 networks and various devices. 

  1. What is CGA (Cryptographically Generated Address)?

A Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA) is an Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) address. It has a host identifier figured from a cryptographic hash function. This technique is a strategy for combining a public signature key to an IPv6 address in the Secure Neighbor Discovery Protocol. The address owner utilizes the related private key to assert address ownership and to sign messages transmitted from the location without a PKI or other security infrastructure.

  1. What is CGC (Complementary ground component)?

A complementary ground component is a framework for a mobile satellite service that utilizes terrestrial base stations to give availability in weak signal regions, like metropolitan areas.

The Complementary Ground Component is utilized to improve the satellite coverage in highly shadowed regions and to upgrade in-house coverage. The CGC is utilized in broadcasting and communication satellite frameworks that provide services to mobile users. The CGC utilizes a similar frequency range as the satellite itself.

  1. What is CH (cluster head)?

Cluster heads utilize information compression to make a composite signal to the master cluster base station with all of the received messages. A cluster head is a hub that assembles information from the cluster sensors and passes this information to the base stations. A node in a cluster that is answerable for gathering information from the sensors in its cluster and transfer this information to the Base Station. 

  1. What is CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)?

In computing, the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) validates a customer or network host to an authenticating entity. CHAP gives security against replay attacks by the peer through the utilization of an incrementally changing identifier and of a variable challenge-value. CHAP needs that both the customer and server know the plaintext of the secret, it is never transmitted over the network. CHAP gives better security when contrasted with Password Authentication Protocol which is vulnerable for both these reasons. It is based on the foundation of a shared secret however to support a service, the individual mentioning support and the assistance conduct a cryptographic exchange, or “handshake”. 

  1. What is CHE (Channel Encoder)? 

An encoder is used for changing information or signals by utilizing a particular code. It is typically utilized to eliminate redundancy that is not going to be perceived by the data receiver beyond the quality objectives of the received signal, named as source encoder. 

To expand redundancy, so that the decoder can identify and correct the errors occurring within the reception of signals or symbols. And used to make the coded information unreadable. It permits the transmission of information through a channel with specific assets and limitations

  1. What is CHE (channel decoder)? 

The decoder is used to performing the inverse operation of the encoder. The source decoder attempts to restore the removed redundancy and the channel decoder eliminates the redundancy introduced by the encoder and corrects errors. The receiver-decoder identifies the symbol transmitted through the channel and restates the information into its original form, i.e., how it was before the modulator.

  1. What is  CHF (Charging Function)?

The 5G Charging Function forms part of the 3GPP’s Charging System. It encompasses assistance for both prepaid and postpaid charging within the equivalent charging framework.

It permits charging services to be provided to network functions. A converged online and offline charging will also be assisted. The overall converged charging framework will be able to interface the billing system as for the existing system, while providing the service-based interface to the 5G system, to permit Operators to preserve their charging climate. 

  1. What is CIA (Confidentiality, integrity, and availability)?

CIA is intended to direct policies for data security within an organization. In the CIA, Confidentiality is identical to Confidentiality measures intended to prevent sensitive data from unauthorized access endeavors. Integrity includes managing the consistency, precision, and dependability of information over its entire lifecycle. The information must not be changed in transit, and steps must be taken to ensure information cannot be modified by unauthorized individuals. And Availability implies data should be reliably and readily accessible for authorized individuals. 

  1. What is CIC (Circuit Identification Code)?

The ISDN Services User Part (ISUP) Circuit Identification Code (CIC) is utilized to establish telephone calls in Public Switched Telephone Networks, as part of the Initial Address Message (IAM).

At the point when a telephone call is established from one subscriber to another, many telephone exchanges will be involved, across international boundaries. To permit a call to be established correctly, a switch will signal call-related data in the network using ISUP messages, where ISUP is supported. The CIC gives data about where the voice part of the call is conveyed, in which time slot.

  1. What is CID (Connection Identifier)?

XCF develops a special 12-byte Connection Identifier to represent the connection, at the point when an association with a notepad is effectively made. The connection identifier can be obtained from the appropriate answer area returned by the IXCNOTE request that made the association. At the point when a note is made, the connection that issued the request becomes related to the note. The connection identifier is utilized to distinguish the associated connection.

  1. What is CIDR (Classes Inter-Domain Routing)? 

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is also known as supernetting. It is an approach to more flexibly assign Internet Protocol (IP) addresses by making granular identifiers for networks and individual devices. It was presented in 1993 as an alternative to Internet routers that controlled network traffic dependent on the class of IP addresses and decided subnetworks for routing, based on IP address class. Its objective was to moderate the development of routing tables on routers across the Internet and to help slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.

  1. What is CIF (Carrier indicator field)? 

Carrier Indicator’ field is intended for the planning data for multi multi-carrier. 

  1. What is CINR (Carrier to Interference-plus-Noise Ratio)? 

CINR is an estimation of signal viability. It is shown in Decibels. The CINR of that signal must be at the correct CINR level, in order for a receiver to correctly process a received signal.

Carrier to interference plus noise (CINR) is the proportion of the signal carrier’s best servings for the intervention seen at all other sectors, plus all the noise. By this proportion, sectors can produce an excess of intervention so that design can be adjusted to correct these issues.

  1. What is CIoT (Cellular Internet of Things)? 

 It’s a method of associating actual things to the internet utilizing essentially the similar stuff behind cell phones. It depicts various cellular-based technologies assisting Internet of Things operation. Some examples of CloT are Extended Coverage – GSM – Internet of Things, LTE-M (Long Term Evolution – Machines), and NB-IoT (Narrow Band – Internet of Things). Cellular IoT gives an alternative to low-power, wide-area networks which work in unlicensed bands.

  1. What is CIP (Critical Infrastructure Protection)?

Critical infrastructure protection (CIP) is an idea that identifies the preparedness and response to serious incidents that include the basic framework of a region or nation. The American Presidential directive PDD-63 of May 1998 established a national program of “Critical Infrastructure Protection”.    

  1. What is CIR (committed information rate)? 

Committed information rate (CIR) is the bandwidth for a virtual circuit guaranteed by an internet service supplier to work under typical conditions. The committed data rate (CDR) is the payload segment of the CIR. The accessible bandwidth should not fall below this committed figure. The bandwidth is generally measured in kilobits per second (kbit/s).

  1. What is CIR (channel impulse response)? 

The channel impulse response of a dynamic system is its output when given with a short input signal, called an impulse. An impulse response is the reaction of any dynamic framework in response to some outside change. The impulse response depicts the response of the framework as a function of time in both cases.

  1. What is CIR (Carrier to Interference Ratio)? 

 CIR is the proportion of carrier signal to the Interference expressed. The carrier is the ideal signal and the interference in the adjacent and co-channel interference.

Measuring the total CIR degradation by a nonlinear gadget utilizing a kernel function obtained from swept power two-tone intermodulation distortion measurements, the CIR of a nonlinear device might be resolved for any discretionary input signal.  

  1. What is CITEL (Inter-American Telecommunication Commission)? 

 Inter-American Telecommunication Commission (CITEL) is a body of the Organization of American States. It was initially constructed by the Inter-American Electrical Communication Commission in 1923. CITEL has technical autonomy to perform its functions within the boundaries prescribed by the OAS Charter. It has 35 Member States. It has been delegated by the Heads of State at the Summits of the Americas with explicit orders. Its aim incorporates working with and promoting the continuous improvement of telecommunications.

  1. What is CK (Ciphering key)? 

The Ciphering Key is a variable utilized in the GSM and GPRS cipher procedure. It is applied to ciphering algorithms from the A5 range to create a cipher stream. It is determined in the authentication procedure and utilized for the encryption of the Radio Bearer in UMTS. This is modulo 2 added to customer information to shield it from eavesdropping. This is a 128bit number. It is determined in the authentication procedure and utilized for the encryption of the Radio Bearer in UMTS.

  1. What is CL (closed-loop)? 

Closed-loop systems utilize feedback where a part of the output signal is fed back to the input to decrease errors and enhance stability. An open-loop control system can be changed into a closed-loop control system by applying feedback. This feedback automatically makes changes in the output due to outer disturbance. Closed loop is exceptionally precise as any error emerging is corrected because of the presence of a feedback signal. It gives a large bandwidth range and Facilitates automation. The sensitivity of the framework may be made little to make the framework more stable. This framework is less influenced by noise.

  1. What is CLI (Calling line identification)?

Calling line identification permits the individual receiving the call to see the caller’s number. This covers caller ID shows as well as the 1471 service. it permits the caller to see the number of the individual responding to the phone. Caller ID data normally comprises the caller’s telephone number while CNAM comprises the caller’s name. A modem can pass CLID data to a computer for purposes of call logging or blocking, but modems in various countries have various frameworks, causing hardware or software incompatibilities.

  1. What is CLI (Command-line interface)?

A command-line interface (CLI) measures commands to a computer program in the form of lines of text. The program which manages the interface is called a command-line interpreter.

A command-line interface (CLI) is a text-based user interface (UI) utilized to view and control computer documents. CLI is distinct from the graphical user interface (GUI) that is now utilized in recent operating frameworks.

  1. What is Calling Line Identification Restriction (CLIR)? 

This assistance prevents your number from being displayed to anyone you call. By utilizing CLIR, the individual calling cannot recognize you. This administration activation and use are free. At the point when a number is retained, there could be no caller ID, which implies the recipient cannot see who is calling. A number can be withheld during digital, voice-over-IP (VoIP) telephone calls. The procedure of withholding a number is known as Calling Line Identification Restriction (CLIR).

  1. What is Cloud-RAN (Cloud Radio Access Networks)? 

C-RAN (cloud radio access network) empowers enormous scale deployment, collaborative radio technology support, and real-time virtualization abilities. It is a development of a wireless communication framework. It utilizes the common public radio interface (CPRI) standard, dense wavelength division multiplexing technology, and millimeter-wave (MM wave) transmission for long-distance signals. It has lower heating, cooling, and power necessities.

It makes a more versatile, and adaptable organization. And Produces higher range proficiency. 

  1. What is CLP (Cell Loss Priority)? 

Cell Loss Priority decides the probability of a cell being disposed of if the organization becomes congested. CLP is a flag bit in the Asynchronous Transfer Mode cell header. CLP is utilized as a control for network traffic “policing mechanism”. Policing decides if the cells meet predefined limitations as they enter an Asynchronous Transfer Mode network. These limitations incorporate traffic rates and “burst sizes” that are agreed upon by the customer and the network supplier.

  1. What is CLPC (Close-Loop Power Control)? 

In the Closed Loop Power Control, feedback is utilized for adjusting the transmit power level. Close-Loop Power Control is utilized to examine the capacity of the UE transmitter to change its output power in accordance with at least one TPC commands received in the downlink. The power control step is the adjustment in the UE transmitter output power in response to a single TPC command shown at the UE. 

  1. What is CLR (Cell Loss Ratio)? 

Cell loss ratio is the proportion of absolute lost cells to the total transmitted cells in a population of interest. Lost cells and transmitted cells in cell blocks considered as severely errored cell blocks should be rejected from the population utilized in calculating cell loss ratio.

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