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  1. What is Anti-spoofing?           

It is the method for recognizing packets and dropping the packets which have a false resource of address. Anti-spoofing is sometimes executed by internet service providers on the behalf of consumers. It is a method that blocks off packets that are recognized to have been wrong and adulterated. This is done by creating a firewall rule that gets assigned to the interface that connects the firewall with the system. 

  1. What Is Assisted GPS?   

Assisted GPS permits global positioning system receivers to acquire data from network assets to assist satellite areas. GPS has issues, when the signal is weak,  in this case, Assisted GPS would help with getting a lock. A-GPS works by drawing its data from the satellite orbiting constellation of the earth and it draws its data from local cell towers and improves the performance of GPS on mobile systems. 

  1. What is A/D (analog-to-digital converter)?

As we can guess from the name, it is the system that converts the analog signals to digital. An A/D converter converts a continuous-time/amplitude analog system to a discrete-time/amplitude digital signal. It also came up with an isolated measurement that converts input analog current/voltage to the numbers of digital form to represent the value of current/voltage.

  1. What is A2DP (Advanced Audio Distribution Profile)?

A2DP defines how top-notch can be streamed from one device to another over a Bluetooth connection; for example; audio from mobile to wireless headphones. The Advanced Audio Distribution Profile is utilized between an A2DP source and a recipient. The audio signals, which are provided by the source over Bluetooth are decoded by the A2DP recipient and then reissued as an audio signal.

  1. What is A2G (Air-to-ground)?

It is the communication between a person on the ground and a person in aircraft with the help of radiotelephony. Radio base stations on the ground are associated with a beam-forming antenna placed on the lower fuselage of the airplanes, sending information up to 100 Mbps. Then, at that point, the signal is dispersed in the airplane utilizing Wi-Fi access points.

  1. What is Antenna Array?

An antenna array is a bunch of various associated antennas which work together, to send and get radio waves. A single antenna is connected with another antenna to reduce power radiation in different directions and increase the power radiation in the desired direction. An antenna array is utilized to enhance overall gain, cancel out interference, gauge the direction of arrival of incoming signals, and maximize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio.

  1. What are Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting?

These are combined processes for effective network and security processes. Authentication is for identifying a consumer before the access is allowed with the help of having a user name entered by the user and a valid password. Authorization, the consumer tries to issue commands, after login into the system. Then the authorization identifies which type of activities or service is permitted to use. Then at last Accounting, which finds the resources consumed during access by the user. It also includes the information about data sent or received by the user.

  1. What is ABMF (Account balance management function)?

The real-time credit-control mechanism information stores and keeps up the credit, charge, and hold balance information for a record by the Account balance management function. The ABMF empowers money-related and non-financial equilibriums to be characterized.

  1. What is ABNO (Applications‐Based Network Operations)?

Application-based Network Operations (ABNO) is to give quick fixes on standard protocols and components. The principal part of ANO is Path Computing Element.

  1. What is BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying)?

BPSK is the technique to transport the data by modulating and represents binary input 1 and 0 with respect to change in carrier phase by 180 degrees. It is a two-phase digital modulation technique and the type of phase-shift keying. 

  1. What is ABQP (Aggregate BSS QoS Profile)?

ABQP is a single parameter and transfers multiple information or data. Aggregate BSS QoS Profile describes the QoS that the BSS requires to give for a given packet flow between UE and SGSN with the radio and Gb interference. 

  1. What is ABR (Available Bit Rate)?

When synchronization is not needed in the source and destination of asynchronous transfer mode networks then the Available bit rate is utilized. ABR doesn’t ensure against deferral or information misfortune. ABR instruments permit the network to allot the accessible data transmission genuinely over the present ABR sources.

  1. What is ABS (Advanced Base Station)?

Advanced Base Station such as advanced transceiver techniques at the base stations is used to accomplish high capacity and to help high-information rate administrations in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and other generations.

  1. What is ABS (almost blank subframe)?

ABS is the important section of 3Gpp eICIC (enhanced intercell interference coordination). ABS is used to blank the subframe of the Macro base station.

  1. What is AC (access class)?

Access class is the data stored in USIM for UE. It is used to delay and permit the mobile originating signaling, mobile originating data, voice service services with UE. 

  1. What is AC (Admission Control)?

The Admission control handles the appliances to decide requests and it restricts the access to the system, which means it passes or blocks new traffic flows before the flows start 

  1. What is AC (Authentication Centre)?

The authentication centre (AC) is used to authenticate the SIM card to connect the GSM core network. It gives security that outsiders can not use network subscriber service and HLR is permitted to control the SIM when the Authentication centre conforms to it. 

  1. What is ACB (Access Class Barring)?

Access Class Barring (ACB) is intended for restricting the number of concurrent access endeavors from certain UEs.

  1. ACBL (Access Class Barring List)
  • Barring Factor ( 0 to 0.95 in steps of 0.05)
  • Barring Time(4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 and 512 seconds)
  • Barring for Special AC
  1. What is ACBT (Access Class Barring Time)?

Barring Time is 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 and 512 seconds.

  1. What is ACCH (Associated Control Channel(s)?

An associated control channel is used to manage other constituent radios by handling data streaming. 

  1. What is ACCOLC (Access Overload Control)?

It is the process for restricting the use of mobile phones in the case of emergency, it is a British procedure. In 2009, ACCOLC was changed by the Mobile Telecommunication Privileged Access Scheme.

  1. What is ACDM (Algebraic Channel Decomposition Multiplexing)?

It is the type of multiple spread spectrum precoding. ACDM has the capacity of security-enhancing. The transmit code vectors are directed from the SVD of the convolution matrix describing the channel between the transmitter and receiver in ACDM.

  1. What is ACE (Active Constellation Extension)?

For high bandwidth for the reduction of PAPR in OFDM, the Active constellation extension is examined.

  1. What is ACELP (Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction)?

The algebraic code excited linear prediction is used in audio codes, eg; G.723.1 and in GSM, UMTS. This is used to predict the filter coefficient needed to synthesize speech at receiving point in order by synthesizing codecs.

  1. What is ACF (Analog Channel Filter)?

Analog channel filters are utilized to set apart the audio signal before applying it to amplifiers. 

It is also used to remove unwanted frequency bands.

  1. ACF (Auto-correlation function)?

ACF is the function of delay.ACF examines the time shift taken into the past to evaluate the similarity between data points and it examines the self-similarity of the signal over different delay times.

  1. What is ACGIH (American conference of governmental industrial hygienists)?

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. It was established on 27 June 1938, ACGIH is a nonprofit organization. ACGIH has the proverb to “specify the science of occupational and environmental health”. 

  1. What is ACGN (additive colored Gaussian noise)?

ACGN is an interaction wherein every one of the arbitrary factors is zero-mean related Gaussian irregular factors with random factors isolated by time τ having covariance RX(τ). Additive because it is included in any noise that might be intrinsic to the data framework.

  1. What is A-Preamble (Advanced Preamble)

Advanced Preamble gives a periodic reference signal for timing and frequency acquisition, RSSI evaluation, path loss evaluation, channel evaluation, and base station recognition, frame synchronization. It is a downlink physical channel. The locations of the A-Preamble OFDM symbols are set within the superframe.

  1. What is  AAAA (IPv6 address record)?

IPv6 has convention upgrades for security and other features also. It has a larger address space, there are 8 sets of four hexadecimal digits ranging from 0000-FFFF, each group having 16 bits.

  1. What is AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)?

Advanced audio code intended to be the replacement of the MP3 design, AAC higher sound quality than MP3 at a similar bit rate. It is used for compressing and encoding digital audio files.

  1. What is AAC-ELD (AAC Enhanced Low Delay)?

AAC  Enhanced Low Delay defines the combination of the AAC Low Delay codec and the Spectral Band Replication (SBR) technique, which is new in the MPEG Advanced Audio Coding.

  1. What is AAC-LD (AAC Low Delay)?

It is derived from the MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) standard. The MPEG-4 Low Delay Audio Coder (AAC-LD) combines perceptual audio coding with low delay mandatory for two-way communication.

  1.  What is AAL (ATM Adaptation Layer)?

AAL receives higher layer packets and segments into fixed-sized ATM cells before transmission over ATM. AAL acknowledges user data and makes them appropriate for transmission over an ATM organization.

  1. What is AAL2 (ATM Adaptation Layer type 2)?

It is used in wireless applications. This is for variable rate bitstreams between the two ATM link ends. It is the type of ATM Adaptation Layer.

  1. What is AAL5 (ATM Adaptation Layer type 5)?

This includes a range of simplified header information services for variable rate data or bitstream.

  1. What is AAoA (Azimuth angle of arrival)? 

The angle of arrival (AoA) is the direction of the receiving signal and the Azimuth is the angle of the received signal. The azimuth range for which AOA can be effectively assessed is up to ±80 degrees in the front half-side of the equator of the AOA anchor, because of the electromagnetic limits of the anchor antenna array. The anchor antenna array is not designed to estimate AOA in its back half-side of the equator.

  1. What is AAoD (Azimuth angle of departure)?

The angle of arrival (AoA) is the direction of the transmitting signal and the Azimuth is the angle of the transmitted signal.

  1. What is AAR (AA request)?

It is the command, which is sent from a PDN GW to a 3GPP AAA server.

  1. What is ACID (HARQ Channel Identifier)?

The ACID is to evolve Hybrid automatic repeat request connections channels.

  1. What is ACIR (Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio)?

It is the ratio of the power transmitted on one channel to the total interference collected by a receiver on the adjacent channel, due to deformity of both transmitter and receiver.

  1. What is ACK (acknowledge)?

ACK is the part of communication protocol, it is the signal travel between devices to signify acknowledgment. 

  1. What is NACK (Negative acknowledgment)?

NACK is the signal, it is used to reject a previously received message.

  1. What is   ACL (Access Control List)?

 An ACL indicates what operations are permitted on given objects and which clients have conceded admittance to objects.

  1. What is ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless)?

ACL is utilized in the Bluetooth system as a transmission link used for data communication.

  1. What is ACLR (Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio)?

The second name of ACLR is Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR). It is the ratio of assigned channel transmission power to the adjacent radio channel received power.

  1. What is ACM (adaptive coding and modulation)?

ACM technology changes the link margin to an increase in the data throughput of satellite links and permits real-time adaptation of transmission parameters according to the link conditions.

  1. What is  ACM (Address Complete Message)?

The ACM is the ISDN signaling message, transmitted in a backward direction specifying that all needed data has been received and the call set-up is progressing.

  1. What is the ACMA (Australian Communications and Media Authority)? 

Australian Communications and Media Authority was established on 1 July  2005. It is in charge of ensuring media and communication work for all Australians. It is the statutory body of the Australian government. 

  1. What is ACP (Adjacent channel power)? 

The ACP specifies the aggregate of spectrum regrowth occurring in adjacent channels. It examines the nonlinear characteristics of a device under test. 

  1. What is ACPR (Adjacent Channel Power Ratio)?

Adjacent Channel Power Ratio is defined as the ratio of adjacent channels’ power to the power of the main channel. 

  1. What is  ACR (Absolute Category Rating)?  

Absolute Category Rating is the measuring method utilized in quality tests. In this measuring technique, Excellent Good Fair Poor Bad, a single test condition is presented to the viewers. 

  1. What is ACR (Accounting request)? 

ACR is the message that is created by a user, utilized by network nodes to supply billing-related data to the offline charging system.

  1. What ACR (Adjacent Channel Rejection)?

Adjacent Channel Rejection has the ability to examine the receiver to receive the transmitted signal in the presence of a high-level interfering signal in the adjacent channel.

  1. What is ACO-OFDM (Asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division)?

Asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is the communication technique of Free-space optical. At the point when the channel incorporates strong turbulence then the bit error rate increases, the ACO-OFDM decoder requires accurate channel state information (CSI) to achieve optimal performance.

  1. What is ACRDA (Asynchronous contention resolution diversity ALOHA)?

 The performance of the ACRDA protocol is assessed by mathematical examination and computer simulations. ACRDA gives better throughput execution with lower transmission latency than its predecessor while permitting asynchronous access to the common medium.

  1. What is ACS (Adjacent Channel Selectivity)?

ACS is the ratio of the attenuation of the receiver filter on the assigned channel frequency to the attenuation of the receiver filter on the adjacent channel frequency.

  1. What is ACS (Auto-Connection Server) or ACS (Autoconfiguration Server)?

Auto-Configure Server permits operators to use global networks for centralized control over customer equipment and by utilizing the convention portrayed in TR-069 norm, ACS is proposed to improve the configuration of subscriber devices.

  1. What are ACTS (Advanced communication technologies and systems, EU research projects)?

ACTS is under the European Community 4th Framework R &TD Programme,

ACTS will give the framework for advanced research and development in the communications field. The ACTS framework work will restorative the development of Integrated Broadband Communications (IBC) in Europe, with voice and sound, still pictures and video images, data, and text – giving opportunities for new users, services, and employment.

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