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  1. What is ADC (Application delivery controllers)?

ADC assists to execute common tasks, those done by web accelerators to eliminate load from the web servers themselves. ADCs are settled in the DMZ, between the router and a web farm.

  1. What is ADC (Application Detection and Control)?

Application Detection and Control (ADC) executes traffic examination and groups streams into applications and their traffic type. To give a significant level order, the convention gathering highlight is carried out to help different applications like gaming, record sharing, email, communicator, and so forth Convention Grouping is done depending on the usefulness given by the application.

  1. What is ADM (Application Development and Maintenance)? 

Application development and maintenance signify the way toward dealing with the plan, coding, testing, and progressing enhancements and troubleshooting of software.  

Application development goes through a cycle of preparation, making, testing, and conveying a data framework. Applications are likewise regularly evolved to automate some kind of internal business process, assembling an item to address normal business difficulties.

Application maintenance is the constant updating, breaking down, altering, and reexamining of your current software applications. 

  1. What are ADS (Advanced Design System)?

The Advanced Design system is created by PathWave Design. It is a division of Keysight Technologies.  To make RF electronic products like mobile phones, wireless networks, satellite communications, radar, and high-speed data links, it gives an integrated design environment.

ADS merges schematic, layout, circuit, electro-thermal co-simulation, and three full-wave 3D EM technologies for IC, package, PCB, and 3D EM component co-design in a single-vendor, integrated platform solution.

  1. ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line)?

An information communications technology that authorizes faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can give. ADSL contradicts the less common symmetric digital subscriber line.ADSL is an Internet access service for downloading content from the Internet, but not for serving content accessed by others. In ADSL, bandwidth and bit rate are asymmetric, greater toward the customer premises than the reverse. 

  1. What is ADSL (Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line)?

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a kind of broadband communications technology. It sends digital information at a high bandwidth over phone lines to another place. ADSL is utilized in the local loop of the telephone network. It is the section of the telephone network, it attaches the customer with the end office of the telephone company. The telephone company utilizes a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer at its end office because multiple ADSL utilizers can be attached to the high-speed network.

  1. What is AE (Antenna Element)?

The antenna element is controlled by the voltage available across a load matching the antenna feed impedance for a provided electromagnetic field strength density. If the antenna is positioned in an electromagnetic field of a certain intensity, a fixed amount of power will appear in the load at the antenna terminals.            

  1. What is AE (Auto-Encoder)?

Auto Encoder is utilized to learn data codings in an unsupervised manner.  The particular utility of the autoencoder is to use a feedforward approach to reconstruct an output from an input. The input is compacted and then sent to be decompacted as output, which is often similar to the original input.

  1. What is AECC (Automotive Edge Computing Consortium)?

It is to disperse computing assets to a restricted network. When computing and network assets are circulated locally, every element conveniently local system can deal with a limited quantity of information traffic and carry out opportune reactions to associated cars. The distributed network highlights of edge registering make it a promising innovation that could be received to understand this idea. The network is intended to part information traffic into a few areas that cover sensible quantities of associated vehicles. The computation assets are progressively disseminated and layered in a topology-aware design to oblige limited information and to permit enormous volumes of information to be prepared conveniently.

  1. What is AEKF (Adaptive extended Kalman filter)?

     It is the algorithm utilized to localize in an indoor environment a mobile robot equipped with eight Polaroid sonars. The system state equation and sonar measurement models utilized for locating the mobile robot are set up. The localization procedure is based on the AEKF algorithm. Four criteria utilized to judge the validity of predictive measurements of sonars are presented, which can extend the probability of the matching between predictive measurements and actual measurements. 

  1. What is AERIS (Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis)?

    Applications for the Environment assist a more sustainable relationship between transportation and the environment. AERIS defines transformation applications and examines to better understand potential environmental benefits offered by the connected vehicle applications. This AERIS program also evolved the GlidePath prototype application. The U.S. DOT  executed the Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) Program. 

  1. What is AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)?

 Advanced Encryption Standard is founded by the U.S National institute of standards and technology. AES was founded by the U.S Government to protect classified data in 2001. This is executed in software and hardware to encrypt sensitive information in the world. It is used for government cybersecurity, electronic data protection and to protect the country’s private information from cyber attackers. 

  1. What are AEs (Antenna Elements)?

The AF enhances the status of experience for mobile networks and revolutionizes how operators engage with their subscribers.  The AF is normally in the control plane and establishes the status of service and potentially some charging aspects for a service. The AF performs as a quality controller for specific applications. 

  1. What is  AF (Amplify-and-Forward)?

Amplify-and-Forward (AF) is a combined strategy for ad-hoc networks with critical power constraints. It requires amplification of the received signal in the analog domain at the relays without further signal processing. The AF relay linearly amplifies the received signals and forwards these signals without decoding. The AF strategy is the most practical relay approach as the result of its low complexity transceiver design.

  1. What is AF (Antenna Filter)?

An antenna is a passive device utilized for sending or getting a microwave signal. The transmitted microwave signal is sent first to a bandpass filter, where the bandpass filter chooses the necessary frequencies and rejects undesirable frequencies, the signal is then parted with the power splitter, there are a bunch of distribution circuits followed by the radiating elements. The advantages of combining antennas and filters are to reduce the size of the segment and also improve the performance of frequency selectivity of the filter.

  1. What is the AFD (Average Fade Duration)?

Average Fade Duration (AFD) estimates that how long a signal’s envelope or power stays

under a given target threshold: got from the level crossing rate. Average Fade Duration is used to decide how long a user is in a continuous outage. 

  1. What is AFE (Analog front-end)?

 Radiofrequency AFE is utilized in radio receivers, known as an RF front end. An analog front-end is a bunch of analog signal molding circuitry that utilizes delicate analog amplifiers, frequently operational speakers, channels, and application-specific integrated circuits for sensors, radio recipients, and different circuits to give a configurable electronics functional block needed to interface an assortment of sensors to an antenna, analog-to-digital converter, to a microcontroller.

  1. What is AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping)?

Adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) implies that the conveying devices are constantly observing their environment for impedance, and they are persistently changing the channel map as per the interference. For instance; Adaptive Frequency Hopping permits Bluetooth to adapt to the environment by distinguishing fixed sources of impedance and barring them from the list of available channels. This process of re-mapping additionally includes decreasing the number of channels to be utilized by Bluetooth. 

  1. What is AFL (Anchor-free localization)?

The proposed conspire is an anchor-free scheme, in which no geometrical data of sensor hubs is needed for their localization. In this way, just nearby cooperation among sensor hubs is utilized to gauge their locations.  AFL (Anchor-Free Localization) where hubs start from a random initial coordinate assignment and converge to a consistent solution using only local node interactions. The vital idea in AFL is crease opportunity, where hubs initially arrange into a topology that takes after a scaled version of the genuine design.

  1. What is AFLA (Antenna factor of the linear array)?

The optimal time (or phase) delta between elements to accomplish the greatest antenna directivity. There are two primary parts to this. In the first place, there is the increase of every individual component array, called the element factor (GE). Besides, there is the effect that can apply through beamforming the array, called the array factor (GA).

  1. What is AFP (Automatic Frequency Planning)?

AFP (Automatic Frequency Planning) modules empower radio network configuration designers to consequently design and assign cell parameters like frequencies and codes to limit impedance. Upheld advancements are 5G NR, LTE/LTE-A Pro, NB-IoT, GSM/GPRS/EDGE, WiMAX, and Wi-Fi.

  1. What is AfriNIC (African Network Information Center)?   

The AFRINIC Database is a public data set that contains data about enrolled IP address space and AS numbers, steering policies, and reverse DNS delegations in the AFRINIC region. Its headquarters are in Ebene, Mauritius. The AFRINIC Board comprises a nine-member Board of Directors. Six of the directors are chosen to address the distinctive sub-regions, while two directors are chosen to serve on the Board based on ability instead of territorial portrayal. The last member of the Board is filled by the Chief Executive Officer. Elections are held at each AFRINIC Annual General Meeting (AGM), which is conducted around May/June every year.

  1. What is AFTR (Address Family Transition Router)?

AFTR is a segment in the ISP’s core network. From the B4 AFTR conclude the IPv6 tunnel. The IPv6 burrow is framed between B4 for the supporter reason. An AFTR is an ISP device to remove IPv4-in-IPv6 tunnel data from packets. AFTR removes IPv6 packets getting from B4 to recover the subscribers’ original IPv4 packets. It transfers the IPv4 packets to the LSN component. LSN routes IPv4 packets, performing port translation and sending them to destiny. Then AFTR utilizes its AFTR tunnel endpoint address to IPv6 source and gets IPv6 from B4. 

  1. What is AG (Audio Gateway)?

The Audio Gateway is the appliance that is the gateway of the input and output audio. The Audio Gateway (AGW) is the focal audio communications interface. Something like the control tower at the airport but for audio and correspondences parts in the vehicle: radio, tele-aid, CD changer, navigation drive, Voice Control System, etc.  Typical devices acting as Audio Gateways are mobile phones and PCs. 

  1. What is AG-HetNet (Air-ground heterogeneous cellular network)?

Aerial platform-based base stations are used to coordinate with terrestrial cellular networks and offer types of assistance for earthly clients promptly and adequately, With the improvement of aerial platforms. A heterogeneous air-ground cellular network is proposed which can give a high information rate to local users while improving the energy productivity of the heterogeneous organization. Not the same as topology of terrestrial cellular networks, execution of heterogeneous air-ground networks are analyzed with a random topology of aerial and terrestrial base stations utilizing Poisson point process with various densities individually.

  1. What is AGA (Air–ground-air)?

Air-Ground-Air (AGA) activity is also called Air-To-Ground. It is a TETRA radio service. It is intended to give communication between radio users operating from airborne resources and ground-based operatives including radio clients. The airborne resources regularly will be comparatively small in number operating comparatively rarely. they are operational, their viability is profoundly esteemed. The AGA service is given by deploying an overlay network of Radio Cells or “Air Cells” that give the user communications regularly from 150 m upwards. 

  1. What is AGC (Automatic Gain Control)?

Automatic gain control is a closed-loop feedback management circuit in an amplifier. The reason for AGC is to keep an appropriate signal amplitude at its output, despite variation of the signal amplitude at the input. The average output signal level is utilized to progressively adjust the gain of the amplifiers, empowering the circuit to work with a greater range of input signal levels. It is utilized in most radio receivers to adjust the normal volume of various radio broadcasts because of differences in received signal strength, just as variations in a single station’s radio signal because of fading. 

  1. What is AGC (Adaptive Gain Control)?

AGCs are broadly utilized in Appliances such as AM Radio receivers, Radar, Video, or in your smartphones. The purpose of an AGC is to regulate again on an output signal based on the energy content of the input signal.

  1. What is AGCF( Access gateway control function)?

The Access Gateway Control Function (AGCF) permits legacy non-SIP networks to get communication from an IMS network by Softswitch. AGCF works with a Media Gateway, a Call Session Controller, and within an IMS network Application Server function as a SIP agent.

  1. What is AGCH (Access Grant Channel)?

AGCH is the channel from the network to the Mobile Subscriber (MS) in the downlink of the GSM system. It supports data by which mobile will decide whether the examination to the network has been permitted or not.  It is utilized to allot resources to a user requesting access to the network. These resources will involve the dedicated channel to be utilized along with timing advance information.

  1. What is AGNSS (assisted GNSS)? 

AGNSS is the assisted global navigation satellite system. AGNSS regularly enhances the startup execution time-to-first-fix of a global navigation satellite system. A-GNSS works by giving the vital information to the device through a radio network instead of the slow satellite link, basically “heating up” the receiver for a fix.

  1. What is AH (Authentication Header)?

Authentication Header is the segment of internet protocol security (IPsec). It is used for IPsec packet authentication and it gives data integrity and security. To guarantee information origin authentication, AH includes a secret shared key in the algorithm that it uses for authentication. To guarantee replay security, AH utilizes the number field within the AH header.  AH ensures that your information has not been messed with in route to its last objective. There are two ways to use AH: the first is transport mode, in this mode, the data contained in the datagram is transported in the clear. It does not give more security. The second is Tunnel mode which makes a new IP header and utilizes it as the outermost IP header of the datagram. 

  1. What is AGV (Automated Guided Vehicles)?

Automatic guided vehicles were invented by MAC Barrette. Jr. AGV in 1954. It is a type of robot. It tracks the wire on the floor. They are frequently utilized in mechanical applications to ship weighty materials.  It utilizes radio waves, vision cameras, magnets, and lasers for the route. 

The average price of AGVs is $100,000 to $150,000. AGV has been used to Reduce Labor Costs, remove damage to Structures and Products, and Increase Inventory Efficiency and Accuracy. 

  1. What is AGP (Automatic Generation of Initial Parameters for eNodeB Insertion)?

Automatic Generation of Initial Parameters for eNodeB Insertion is utilized to enhance network quality and it removes total effort/time. AGP Optimisation Antenna configuration

  1. What is ASA (Authorized shared access)?

Authorized shared access is used to unlock access to additional frequency bands which are already not assigned for mobile broadband.  Authorised Shared Access (ASA)  are ideas that permit spectrum that has been authorized for international mobile telecommunications (IMT) to be utilized by more than one substance.  this would build the utilization of the radio spectrum by permitting ‘shared access’ when and where the essential licensee is not using isn’t utilizing


  1. What is ASA (Abort session answer)?

Abort session answer is a message that is transmitted in response to ASR. it is specified by the Command-Code field set to 274 and the “R” bit cleared in the Command Flags field. It is transmitted from a non-3GPP access network NAS to a 3GPP AAA Server/Proxy.

  1. What is ASA (Adaptive Slot Allocation)?

Adaptive slot allocation is utilized to manage the packet delivery queueing delay in TDMA base stations.   It is used in a base station to support differentiated services for mobile hosts. ASA further assigns time slots among the mobile hosts to manage their packet delay based on the allocated data rate and real channel quality.

  1.  What is ASCI (Advanced Speech Call Items)?

It is the speech call resource. Advanced Speech Call Items is created to fulfill the specification of the international union of railways on the GSM. ASCI’s objective is to provide service to the railway, to distribute speech into geographical areas towards subscribers located in that place.  

  1. What is ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a seven-bit code for digital representation of uppercase and lowercase Roman letters, number protocol that demonstrates, and uncommon control characters in teletype, computer, and word processor systems. Since most computer systems utilize a full byte to transmit an ASCII character. ASCII permits all computers to transfer files and documents in a common language.

  1. What is ASE (area spectral efficiency)?

Area spectral efficiency (ASE) is efficiency that is characterized as the amount of the greatest average information rates/Hz/unit area upheld by a cell’s base station.  This efficiency reuse distance for the uplink of FDMA and TDMA frameworks under various interference configurations.  ASE diminishes as an exponential of a fourth-order polynomial relative to the cell size. This outcome quantifies exactly how much cellular system capacity increases with diminished cell size. 

  1. What is ASF (Apache Software Foundation)?

Apache Software Foundation is an American corporation. It was established by a group of developers of the Apache HTTP Server, on March 25, 1999.  It assists several open appointments in software projects. ASF comprises the management of corporate assets, presidential appointments, and corporate officers handling the core operation of ASF. Technical decision-making authority for every Apache project is allocated to their free undertaking the executives advisory group; the members in each venture give guidance, not the board.

  1. What is ASIC (Application-specific integrated circuit)?

The application-specific integrated circuit is an integrated circuit chip. ASIC chips are typically constructed using metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology, as MOS integrated circuit chips. Modern ASICs frequently incorporate microprocessors, memory blocks,  and other large building blocks. ASIC is constructed for any single specific purpose. 

  1. What is ASIC (Active SI Cancelation)?

Active SI Cancellation methods are used to  subtract the SI  signals from the received signal. Various sorts of active SI Cancelation are existing and can be considered as a part of analog and  RF cancellation because the subtraction measure happens before the analog to the digital conversion process. Active SIC in the FD system can be achieved by utilizing adjusted to un en transformation which is called a balun. The  Cancellation process  will be carried out through analog and digital samples. 

  1. What is ASM E (Access security management entity)?

 Access Security Management Entity is used to access networks from the HSS or HLR. MME manages the role of ASME for E-UTRAN access networks. The MME summons the AKA systems by mentioning authentication vectors to the Home Environment. The HE transfers an authentication reaction back to the MME that contains a new verification vector.

  1. What is ASMG (Arab Spectrum Management Group)?

ASMG was founded in 1997. It has 22 members and they hold annual summonings. In the Arab States ASMG is used to collaborate in the field of Spectrum Management by sharing views on the emerging radio communication aspects as well as to control all issues related to Spectrum Management. ASMG is used for Harmonizing spectrum use between Arab countries.

  1. What is ASN (Access Service Network)?

An access network is a kind of broadcast communications network which attaches subscribers to their nearby service provider. It is contrasted with the core network, which attaches to local suppliers. The access network might be additionally split between feeder plant or distribution network, and drop plant or edge network.

  1. What is ASN (Abstract Syntax Notation)?

Abstract Syntax Notation is extensively utilized in telecommunications and computer networking, and particularly in cryptography. It was set up in 1984. Abstract Syntax Notation.1 is a joint norm of the International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector. ASN is utilized to define information structures that can be serialized and deserialized in a cross-platform way. 

  1. What is AKID (Authorization Key Identifier)?

The authorized key identifier extension gives a method for recognizing public keys relating to private keys utilized to sign a certificate. Where an issuer has multiple signing keys, this extension is utilized. The identification may be found on the issuer’s name and serial number.

  1. What is AL (Aggregation Level)?

An aggregation level is set utilizing a bunch of attributes and key figures from the InfoProvider. The key figures included in the aggregation level are aggregated utilizing the attributes that are excluded in the aggregation level.  An aggregation level is located on a real-time authorized InfoCube.

  1.  What is ALCAP (Access link control application part)?

ALCAP is utilized to transport layer UMTS control planes to multiplexing and controlling users into  ATM AAL2 virtual connections. Access link control application part is utilized when Iub, Iur, and Iu interfaces are ATM-based. 

  1. What is ALG (Application-level gateway)?

Application-level gateway is a security element. It is utilized to control specific application protocols like session initial protocol and file transfer protocol. It recognizes application-specific commands and offers security controls over them. ALG allows the traffic to enter or not to the application server at the endpoint server. It analyses the specified traffic, allocating resources, and defining dynamic policies to permit traffic to pass through the gateway.

  1. What is ALMMSE (Approximate Linear Minimum Mean Square Error)?

Approximate Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (ALMMSE) are utilized in the 3GPP-LTE fast fading channel to measure Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) and Precoding Matrix Indicator (PMI). The assessment mistake is decreased with a moderately little decrease in throughput by utilizing a low-complexity ALMMSE.

  1. What is AltBOC (alternate binary offset carrier)?

Alternative binary offset carrier modulated signals for new-generation satellite radio navigation systems (SRNSs). There are two sorts of AltBOC four- and eight components. In the four-segment complete AltBOC signal has a time-variable envelope, and in eight-component complete AltBOC signal is consistent.

  1. What is ALTO (Application‐layer traffic optimization)?

The ALTO server gives cost maps that permit ALTO users to find out preferences among locations in a network, which is represented by a network map. ALTO protocol gives network data that applications utilize for modifying network resource consumption patterns and enhancing their performance.

  1. What is AM (Amplitude Modulation)?

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique. It is utilized for sending messages with a radio carrier wave. The signal strength of the carrier wave is varied with that of the message signal, for example, an audio signal. There are three kinds of amplitude modulation: Double sideband-suppressed carrier modulation (DSB-SC), Single Sideband Modulation (SSB), and Vestigial Sideband Modulation (VSB).

  1. What is AM (Application Manager)?

Application Managers are IT experts who are dealing with software analysis applications within a business. Application Managers recognize what software is best for a business’ requirements.  Application management (AM) is the way toward dealing with the activity, support, forming, and updating of an application all through its lifecycle. AM processes comprise Application Lifecycle Management (ALM), Application Portfolio Management (APM), and Application Performance Management (APM).

  1. What is AM/PM (Amplitude Modulation to Phase Modulation conversion)?

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) is a segment of’s cloud-computing platform. It grants clients to lease virtual PCs on which to run their PC applications. It gives security, resizable compute capacity in the cloud.  It additionally gives Various designs of CPU, memory, and networking capacity for your instances, known as instance types, and protects login data for your instances utilizing key pairs.

  1. What is AMBR (Aggregate maximum bit rate)?   

Aggregate maximum bit rate is utilized for non-GBR streams and has two sorts, APN-AMBR and UE-AMBR. The APN-AMBR parameter alludes to the most extreme consumed bitrate by all non-GBR bearers and all PDN connections of this APN. The UE-AMBR parameter alludes to the maximum bit rate permitted for all non-GBR bearers. AMBR is the maximum conceivable if bandwidth is accessible and reliant upon what and the number of administrations the client is utilizing.

  1. What is AMC (Adaptive modulation and coding)?

 AMC can be utilized to pick modulation types and forward error correction (FEC) coding rates. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is utilized to enhance the network capacity. Different modulation types are discussed like  Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM).  To enhance spectral efficiencies without expanding bit error rate in noisy channels adaptive modulation and coding can be adjusted to adapt to the mobile wireless channels condition.

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