5G is the fifth generation of wireless networks. It is new global standard after 4G technology. This technology is designed in such a way that it could be able to connect everything and every device virtually into one frame. 5G will offer data rates in multi-Gbps data speeds, it is more reliable than the previous generation which is able to connect a massive number of devices together, increase availability, and can give a good user experience. 5G technology will have an impact on every business and many industries because it will offer high data rates, high reliability, and low latency which will be beneficial for various industries like logistics, remote healthcare, agriculture, etc. 5G is designed in such a way that it has the ability and flexibility to support future services which are yet to be discovered and that will become beyond 5G technologies. 5G will provide eMBB (enhanced mobile broadband), mMTC(mission-critical communications), and massive IoT( Internet of things). 5G can also deliver much lower latency services for a good user experience so that the data rates stay constantly high even when the users are in good mobility.
With the development of 5G networks in the telecommunications industry, fast, high volume, low latency data streams are possible. 5G networks bring new business opportunities with different applications like IoT(Internet of things), semi-autonomous vehicles, virtual reality, augmented reality, etc. 5G core network Architecture not only has macrocell deployment but also use of Femto, pico, and small cell deployments. The use of small cells in the network results in high throughput, lower latency, and high reliability of the networks that are promised by 5G networks.
- 5G technology can give speeds that will range from 50 Mbps to over several Gbps. The fastest 5G speed is mmWave has a speed of 1 – 10 Gbps.
- In 5G, the air latency is 8-12 milliseconds.
- Error rate: 5G uses an adaptive signal coding to keep the bit error rate low.
- 5G technology Range: Total range of 5G depends on various factors. The key factor is the frequency band used. mmWave signals tend to have a complete range of only hundreds of meters.
5G technology is rolled out to meet the increasing demand for data rates and services. The rolled out in the society is from 2020 and beyond years. 5G networks focus on a number of performance indicators of the technology which include allowing VR (Virtual Reality), AR (Augmented Reality) applications, and high definition video streaming services with the speed of around 1+gbps. It supports autonomous control applications with very low latency, ultra-high reliability, a massive number of connections, and low power consumption which means good energy efficiency. The 5G networks are able to connect a number of devices which are around 10-100 times more than that of the current technologies like 4G. Optimization of the networks is of utmost importance to find out various faults in the network and to meet the criteria of the technology which is promised. For optimizing networks, various tools are designed which can help to find out all the irregularities in the network. 5G NR (New Radio) network optimization tools provide a complete view of 5G network quality, parameters, and coverage scenarios. By optimizing networks, operators can remove all the quality issues and they can ensure the high capacity of the 5G networks. 5G NR technologies like 3D beamforming and massive MIMO can be verified by using various 5G NR wireless network optimization tools.
Performance Metrics in 5G networks
Performance prerequisites are highly dependent on traffic scenarios. The main focus is on giving out high data rates (throughput) and high capacity, especially in indoor hotspot conditions.
The various factors include:
- Mobility: 5G is used to deliver wireless broadband. The total number of users are using smartphones increases the mobility in the system.
- Reliability: The reliability of a 5G network is defined as a URLLC (Ultra-Reliable Low latency communications) service requirement.
- Efficiency: It is a critical issue in the 5G networks. The network should be efficient to provide all the services as desired.
- Network slicing: A network slice can provide full functionality in the network which can allow radio access network (RAN) and central network functionalities to be used in the network. Network slicing is required in the 5G networks.
- Priority/QoS (Quality of Service): The QoS abilities are required to be maintained in the 5G transport network.
Optimization in 5G network
5G technology is the evolution of mobile broadband systems. The optimization of the 5G networks is important for the smooth running of the networks. Network optimization can enable new opportunities for the applications through the better performance of the networks for good data transfer, creating reliable point-to-point connections between the ends. The requirement of the networks is basically to enable faster retransmissions of the system in case of any drops in the network. By applying mathematical optimization tools and various calculations, functional splits have been equated and evaluated for the networks.
Need for optimization
5G network deployment should be able to deploy and design the network with optimum performance metrics. It helps you to keep the track of various performance metrics. Various metrics include bandwidth usage, availability, packet loss, latency, and jitter, etc. It implies that the enhanced efficiency across the converged networks is from the spectrum efficiency to implement virtualized load balancing, and from the space-efficient small cells to energy-efficient backhaul networks.
- Mobile edge computing (MEC) serves the 5G IoT (Internet of things) low latency applications such as self-driving, Autonomous vehicles, and tactile internet, etc.
- New power solutions are required by 5G networks which will provide good energy as well as spectrum efficiency in the networks.
- Good Frequency management in shared site equipment is required.
- Time-division duplex modes show a critical role in managing 5G networks.
- Interference mitigation is a must.
Different optimization methods
- Machine learning-based optimization technique: with the help of this tool, they use two optimization methods for optimizing their networks, the tools used are Generic Algorithms (GA) and Machine Learning (ML). This method was established on the QoE (Quality of Experience) techniques.
- Virtualized Cellular Infrastructure: It suggested that the network function virtualization methods are used for the Automatic Neighbor relation (ANR).
- Network function Virtualization: They analyze several game theory-based algorithms that can be used. This could be via simulation techniques that aim at the optimization of consumption of overall base stations.
- Automatic Neighbor relation: It describes that wireless networks are the one that enables automatic neighbor relation functions management and orchestration.
Optimization tools can support various features such as:
- Complete Coverage analysis
- Total Interference analysis
- Handover performance analysis
- Neighbor cell analysis and optimization
- Cross feeder analysis
- Overspilling of cells
Various Optimization tests reflect the latest 5G performance of networks with the help of various parameters like:
- Analysis of Voice and video quality e.g Call Setup Success Rate, Completed call Rate, Dropped calls, Blocked calls, Call setup time, MOS, Call failure reason, etc.
- Data connection Analysis e.g File download speed, file upload speed, network latency, web browsing time, data connection failure.
5G NR Network Advanced Optimization Features
Various Optimization tools include a number of advanced optimization features like Beam coverage visualization with the help of the 3D visualizer. Its add-on helps to view the signal behavior in practice related to all the environment objects in its surroundings. It allows you to verify all the beam configurations by comparing its measurement data, 5G LTE coverage comparison, low coverage detection, pilot pollution analysis, cell dominance analysis, network slicing testing and analysis, and massive MIMO result analysis.
5G NR Optimization use cases include:
- Remote management of 5G measurements and all their solutions
- Drive testing of 5G NR
- In-building 5G measurements
- All Unattended 5G measurements
- Post-processing of data